独島は韓国の地. 伝統 2410

独島は韓国の地. | 伝統 24|0
96272| veracuiz | 2008.12.28 17:22:28  
註 : サンフランシスコ平和条約(Treaty of Peace with Japan)は 1951年日本とのサンフランシスコ平和条約(San Francisco Peace Treaty with Japan in 1951)という別称が見せてくれるように 1951年 2次世界大戦戦勝国集合体である連合国たちが日本と戦後処理方案に対して合議してこれを通じて恒久的平和を果たすために締結した条約だ.1951年 9月4日に始めてその月 8日に終わったこの平和条約は交渉主体が名目上 5 2個連合国と敗戦国日本の両側になっているが, 実際はアメリカとイギリスが主導した. このサンフランシスコ会談で連合国の中でインドとユーゴスラビヤ, ミャンマー(現ミャンマー), 中国は代表を送らなかった. 9月8日調印されて翌年の 1952年 4月 28日に発效したこの平和条約にチェコスロバキアとソ連, ポーランドの 3ヶ国を除いた 49ヶ国が署名した. 日本では吉田茂受賞が署名した. この平和条約は専門(前文)と本文 7枚(chapter)で構成される. 本文 7枚はまた 27個に達する組(article)に細分される. 各葬(章)とまどろむピョンモックが次のようだ. ▲1枚平和(PEACE) : 第1条 ▲2枚領土(territory) : 第2-4兆 ▲3枚安保(secur ity) : 第5-6兆 ▲4枚政治・経済条項(political and economic clauses) : 第7-13兆 ▲5枚請求権と財産(claims and properties) : 第14-21兆 ▲6枚紛争解決(settleme nt of disputes) : 第22条 ▲7枚結論条項(final clauses) : 第23-27兆. 第2章領土第2組では △韓国に対する独立認定と韓国に対するすべての権利(right)と権原(title)と請求権(laim) 放棄 △台湾(Formosa)とペングホも(the Pes cadores)に対するすべての権利放棄 △千島列島とサハリン及び彼(サハリン) 部属島々に対するすべての権利放棄 △太平洋制度に対する権利放棄とUNの信託統治実施認定 △南極に対するすべての権利放棄 △南砂群島(Spratly Islands)と敍事君も(the Parace l Islands)に対するすべての権利放棄という 6個項を規定している.引き続き同じな章第3条では難セイ列島南側, 琉球列島と太東列島を含む北魏 29度以南地域に対するUNの信託統治を規定している. このテキスト出場は次に基づいたことを明らかにする.


※下の翻訳文は本人が直接翻訳したのです. 長文である関係で 前文, 韓国と関連がある条項から 翻訳文をあげます 翻訳文でショートカット.


条約原文
TREATY OF PEACE WITH JAPAN
Sept.8, 1951
San Francisco, California, USA


WHEREAS the Allied Powers and Japan are resolved that henceforth their relations shall be those of nations which, as sovereign equals, cooperate in friendly association to promote their common welfare and to maintain international peace and security, and are therefore desirous of concluding a Treaty of Peace which will settle questions still outstanding as a result of the existence of a state of war between them;


WHEREAS Japan for its part declares its intention to apply for membership in the United Nations and in all circumstances to conform to the principles of the Charter of the United Nations; to strive to realize the objectives of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; to seek to create within Japan conditions of stability and well-being as defined in Articles 55 and 56 of the Charter of the United Nations and already initiated by post-surrender Japanese legislation; and in public and private trade and commerce to conform to internationally accepted fair practices;


WHEREAS the Allied Powers welcome the intentions of Japan set out in the foregoing paragraph;


THE ALLIED POWERS AND JAPAN have therefore determined to conclude the present Treaty of Peace, and have accordingly appointed the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, who, after presentation of their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed on the following provisions:


CHAPTER I


PEACE


Article 1


(a) The state of war between Japan and each of the Allied Powers is terminated as from the date on which the present Treaty comes into force between Japan and the Allied Power concerned as provided for in Article 23.


(b) The Allied Powers recognize the full sovereignty of the Japanese people over Japan and its territorial waters.


CHAPTER II


TERRITORY


Article 2


(a) Japan recognizing the independence of Korea, renounces all right, title and claim to Korea, including the islands of Quelpart, Port Hamilton and Dagelet.


(b) Japan renounces all right, title and claim to Formosa and the Pescadores.


(c) Japan renounces all right, title and claim to the Kurile Islands, and to that portion of Sakhalin and the islands adjacent to it over which Japan acquired sovereignty as a consequence of the Treaty of Portsmouth of 5 September 1905.


(d) Japan renounces all right, title and claim in connection with the League of Nations Mandate System, and accepts the action of the United Nations Security Council of 2 April 1947, extending the trusteeship system to the Pacific Islands formerly under mandate to Japan.


(e) Japan renounces all claim to any right or title to or interest in connection with any part of the Antarctic area, whether deriving from the activities of Japanese nationals or otherwise.


(f) Japan renounces all right, title and claim to the Spratly Islands and to the Paracel Islands.


Article 3


Japan will concur in any proposal of the United States to the United Nations to place under its trusteeship system, with the United States as the sole administering authority, Nansei Shoto south of 29deg. north latitude (including the Ryukyu Islands and the Daito Islands), Nanpo Shoto south of Sofu Gan (including the Bonin Islands, Rosario Island and the Volcano Islands) and Parece Vela and Marcus Island. Pending the making of such a proposal and affirmative action thereon, the United States will have the right to exercise all and any powers of administration, legislation and jurisdiction over the territory and inhabitants of these islands, including their territorial waters.


Article 4


(a) Subject to the provisions of paragraph (b) of this Article, the disposition of property of Japan and of its nationals in the areas referred to in Article 2, and their claims, including debts, against the authorities presently administering such areas and the residents (including juridical persons) thereof, and the disposition in Japan of property of such authorities and residents, and of claims, including debts, of such authorities and residents against Japan and its nationals, shall be the subject of special arrangements between Japan and such authorities.The property of any of the Allied Powers or its nationals in the areas referred to in Article 2 shall, insofar as this has not already been done, be returned by the administering authority in the condition in which it now exists. (The term nationals whenever used in the present Treaty includes juridical persons.)


(b) Japan recognizes the validity of dispositions of property of Japan and Japanese nationals made by or pursuant to directives of the United States Military Government in any of the areas referred to in Articles 2 and 3.


(c) Japanese owned submarine cables connection Japan with territory removed from Japanese control pursuant to the present Treaty shall be equally divided, Japan retaining the Japanese terminal and adjoining half of the cable, and the detached territory the remainder of the cable and connecting terminal facilities.


CHAPTER III


SECURITY


Article 5


(a) Japan accepts the obligations set forth in Article 2 of the Charter of the United Nations, and in particular the obligations


(i) to settle its international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered;


(ii) to refrain in its international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations;


(iii) to give the United Nations every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the Charter and to refrain from giving assistance to any State against which the United Nations may take preventive or enforcement action.


(b) The Allied Powers confirm that they will be guided by the principles of Article 2 of the Charter of the United Nations in their relations with Japan.


(c) The Allied Powers for their part recognize that Japan as a sovereign nation possesses the inherent right of individual or collective self-defense referred to in Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations and that Japan may voluntarily enter into collective security arrangements.


Article 6


(a) All occupation forces of the Allied Powers shall be withdrawn from Japan as soon as possible after the coming into force of the present Treaty, and in any case not later than 90 days thereafter. Nothing in this provision shall, however, prevent the stationing or retention of foreign armed forces in Japanese territory under or in consequence of any bilateral or multilateral agreements which have been or may be made between one or more of the Allied Powers, on the one hand, and Japan on the other.


(b) The provisions of Article 9 of the Potsdam Proclamation of 26 July 1945, dealing with the return of Japanese military forces to their homes, to the extent not already completed, will be carried out.


(c) All Japanese property for which compensation has not already been paid, which was supplied for the use of the occupation forces and which remains in the possession of those forces at the time of the coming into force of the present Treaty, shall be returned to the Japanese Government within the same 90 days unless other arrangements are made by mutual agreement.


CHAPTER IV


POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CLAUSES


Article 7


(a) Each of the Allied Powers, within one year after the present Treaty has come into force between it and Japan, will notify Japan which of its prewar bilateral treaties or conventions with Japan it wishes to continue in force or revive, and any treaties or conventions so notified shall continue in force or by revived subject only to such amendments as may be necessary to ensure conformity with the present Treaty. The treaties and conventions so notified shall be considered as having been continued in force or revived three months after the date of notification and shall be registered with the Secretariat of the United Nations. All such treaties and conventions as to which Japan is not so notified shall be regarded as abrogated.


(b) Any notification made under paragraph (a) of this Article may except from the operation or revival of a treaty or convention any territory for the international relations of which the notifying Power is responsible, until three months after the date on which notice is given to Japan that such exception shall cease to apply.


Article 8


(a) Japan will recognize the full force of all treaties now or hereafter concluded by the Allied Powers for terminating the state of war initiated on 1 September 1939, as well as any other arrangements by the Allied Powers for or in connection with the restoration of peace. Japan also accepts the arrangements made for terminating the former League of Nations and Permanent Court of International Justice.


(b) Japan renounces all such rights and interests as it may derive from being a signatory power of the Conventions of St. Germain-en-Laye of 10 September 1919, and the Straits Agreement of Montreux of 20 July 1936, and from Article 16 of the Treaty of Peace with Turkey signed at Lausanne on 24 July 1923.


(c) Japan renounces all rights, title and interests acquired under, and is discharged from all obligations resulting from, the Agreement between Germany and the Creditor Powers of 20 January 1930 and its Annexes, including the Trust Agreement, dated 17 May 1930, the Convention of 20 January 1930, respecting the Bank for International Settlements; and the Statutes of the Bank for International Settlements.Japan will notify to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Paris within six months of the first coming into force of the present Treaty its renunciation of the rights, title and interests referred to in this paragraph.


Article 9


Japan will enter promptly into negotiations with the Allied Powers so desiring for the conclusion of bilateral and multilateral agreements providing for the regulation or limitation of fishing and the conservation and development of fisheries on the high seas.


Article 10


Japan renounces all special rights and interests in China, including all benefits and privileges resulting from the provisions of the final Protocol signed at Peking on 7 September 1901, and all annexes, notes and documents supplementary thereto, and agrees to the abrogation in respect to Japan of the said protocol, annexes, notes and documents.


Article 11


Japan accepts the judgments of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and of other Allied War Crimes Courts both within and outside Japan, and will carry out the sentences imposed thereby upon Japanese nationals imprisoned in Japan.The power to grant clemency, to reduce sentences and to parole with respect to such prisoners may not be exercised except on the decision of the Government or Governments which imposed the sentence in each instance, and on recommendation of Japan. In the case of persons sentenced by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, such power may not be exercised except on the decision of a majority of the Governments represented on the Tribunal, and on the recommendation of Japan.


Article 12


(a) Japan declares its readiness promptly to enter into negotiations for the conclusion with each of the Allied Powers of treaties or agreements to place their trading, maritime and other commercial relations on a stable and friendly basis.


(b) Pending the conclusion of the relevant treaty or agreement, Japan will, during a period of four years from the first coming into force of the present Treaty


(1) accord to each of the Allied Powers, its nationals, products and vessels


(i) most-favoured-nation treatment with respect to customs duties, charges, restrictions and other regulations on or in connection with the importation and exportation of goods;


(ii) national treatment with respect to shipping, navigation and imported goods, and with respect to natural and juridical persons and their interests - such treatment to include all matters pertaining to the levying and collection of taxes, access to the courts, the making and performance of contracts, rights to property (tangible and intangible), participating in juridical entities constituted under Japanese law, and generally the conduct of all kinds of business and professional activities;


(2) ensure that external purchases and sales of Japanese state trading enterprises shall be based solely on commercial considerations.


(c) In respect to any matter, however, Japan shall be obliged to accord to an Allied Power national treatment, or most-favored-nation treatment, only to the extent that the Allied Power concerned accords Japan national treatment or most-favored-nation treatment, as the case may be, in respect of the same matter.The reciprocity envisaged in the foregoing sentence shall be determined, in the case of products, vessels and juridical entities of, and persons domiciled in, any non-metropolitan territory of an Allied Power, and in the case of juridical entities of, and persons domiciled in, any state or province of an Allied Power having a federal government, by reference to the treatment accorded to Japan in such territory, state or province.


(d) In the application of this Article, a discriminatory measure shall not be considered to derogate from the grant of national or most-favored-nation treatment, as the case may be, if such measure is based on an exception customarily provided for in the commercial treaties of the party applying it, or on the need to safeguard that partys external financial position or balance of payments (except in respect to shiping and navigation), or on the need to maintain its essential security interests, and provided such measure is proportionate to the circumstances and not applied in an arbitrary or unreasonable manner.


(e) Japans obligations under this Article shall not be affected by the exercise of any Allied rights under Article 14 of the present Treaty; nor shall the provisions of this Article be understood as limiting the undertakings assumed by Japan by virtue of Article 15 of the Treaty.


Article 13


(a) Japan will enter into negotiations with any of the Allied Powers, promptly upon the request of such Power or Powers, for the conclusion of bilateral or multilateral agreements relating to international civil air transport.


(b) Pending the conclusion of such agreement or agreements, Japan will, during a period of four years from the first coming into force of the present Treaty, extend to such Power treatment not less favorable with respect to air-traffic rights and privileges than those exercised by any such Powers at the date of such coming into force, and will accord complete equality of opportunity in respect to the operation and development of air services.


(c) Pending its becoming a party to the Convention on International Civil Aviation in accordance with Article 93 thereof, Japan will give effect to the provisions of that Convention applicable to the international navigation of aircraft, and will give effect to the standards, practices and procedures adopted as annexes to the Convention in accordance with the terms of the Convention.


CHAPTER V


CLAIMS AND PROPERTY


Article 14


(a) It is recognized that Japan should pay reparations to the Allied Powers for the damage and suffering caused by it during the war. Nevertheless it is also recognized that the resources of Japan are not presently sufficient, if it is to maintain a viable economy, to make complete reparation for all such damage and suffering and at the same time meet its other obligations.


Therefore,


1. Japan will promptly enter into negotiations with Allied Powers so desiring, whose present territories were occupied by Japanese forces and damaged by Japan, with a view to assisting to compensate those countries for the cost of repairing the damage done, by making available the services of the Japanese people in production, salvaging and other work for the Allied Powers in question.Such arrangements shall avoid the imposition of additional liabilities on other Allied Powers, and, where the manufacturing of raw materials is called for, they shall be supplied by the Allied Powers in question, so as not to throw any foreign exchange burden upon Japan.


2. (I) Subject to the provisions of subparagraph (II) below, each of the Allied Powers shall have the right to seize, retain, liquidate or otherwise dispose of all property, rights and interests of


(a) Japan and Japanese nationals,


(b) persons acting for or on behalf of Japan or Japanese nationals, and


(c) entities owned or controlled by Japan or Japanese nationals, which on the first coming into force of the present Treaty were subject to its jurisdiction. The property, rights and interests specified in this subparagraph shall include those now blocked, vested or in the possession or under the control of enemy property authorities of Allied Powers, which belong to, or were held or managed on behalf of, any of the persons or entities mentioned in (a), (b) or (c) above at the time such assets came under the controls of such authorities.


(II) The following shall be excepted from the right specified in subparagraph (I) above:


(i) property of Japanese natural persons who during the war resided with the permission of the Government concerned in the territory of one of the Allied Powers, other than territory occupied by Japan, except property subjected to restrictions during the war and not released from such restrictions as of the date of the first coming into force of the present Treaty;


(ii) all real property, furniture and fixtures owned by the Government of Japan and used for diplomatic or consular purposes, and all personal furniture and furnishings and other private property not of an investment nature which was normally necessary for the carrying out of diplomatic and consular functions, owned by Japanese diplomatic and consular personnel;


(iii) property belonging to religious bodies or private charitable institutions and used exclusively for religious or charitable purposes;


(iv) property, rights and interests which have come within its jurisdiction in consequence of the resumption of trade and financial relations subsequent to 2 September 1945, between the country concerned and Japan, except such as have resulted from transactions contrary to the laws of the Allied Power concerned;


(v) obligations of Japan or Japanese nationals, any right, title or interest in tangible property located in Japan, interests in enterprises organized under the laws of Japan, or any paper evidence thereof; provided that this exception shall only apply to obligations of Japan and its nationals expressed in Japanese currency.


(III) Property referred to in exceptions (i) through (v) above shall be returned subject to reasonable expenses for its preservation and administration. If any such property has been liquidated the proceeds shall be returned instead.


(IV) The right to seize, retain, liquidate or otherwise dispose of property as provided in subparagraph (I) above shall be exercised in accordance with the laws of the Allied Power concerned, and the owner shall have only such rights as may be given him by those laws.


(V) The Allied Powers agree to deal with Japanese trademarks and literary and artistic property rights on a basis as favorable to Japan as circumstances ruling in each country will permit.


(b) Except as otherwise provided in the present Treaty, the Allied Powers waive all reparations claims of the Allied Powers, other claims of the Allied Powers and their nationals arising out of any actions taken by Japan and its nationals in the course of the prosecution of the war, and claims of the Allied Powers for direct military costs of occupation.


Article 15


(a) Upon application made within nine months of the coming into force of the present Treaty between Japan and the Allied Power concerned, Japan will, within six months of the date of such application, return the property, tangible and intangible, and all rights or interests of any kind in Japan of each Allied Power and its nationals which was within Japan at any time between 7 December 1941 and 2 September 1945, unless the owner has freely disposed thereof without duress or fraud.Such property shall be returned free of all encumbrances and charges to which it may have become subject because of the war, and without any charges for its return. Property whose return is not applied for by or on behalf of the owner or by his Government within the prescribed period may be disposed of by the Japanese Government as it may determine. In cases where such property was within Japan on 7 December 1941, and cannot be returned or has suffered injury or damage as a result of the war, compensation will be made on terms not less favorable than the terms provided in the draft Allied Powers Property Compensation Law approved by the Japanese Cabinet on 13 July 1951.


(b) With respect to industrial property rights impaired during the war, Japan will continue to accord to the Allied Powers and their nationals benefits no less than those heretofore accorded by Cabinet Orders No. 309 effective 1 September 1949, No. 12 effective 28 January 1950, and No. 9 effective 1 February 1950, all as now amended, provided such nationals have applied for such benefits within the time limits prescribed therein.


(c) (i) Japan acknowledges that the literary and artistic property rights which existed in Japan on 6 December 1941, in respect to the published and unpublished works of the Allied Powers and their nationals have continued in force since that date, and recognizes those rights which have arisen, or but for the war would have arisen, in Japan since that date, by the operation of any conventions and agreements to which Japan was a party on that date, irrespective of whether or not such conventions or agreements were abrogated or suspended upon or since the outbreak of war by the domestic law of Japan or of the Allied Power concerned.


(ii) Without the need for application by the proprietor of the right and without the payment of any fee or compliance with any other formality, the period from 7 December 1941 until the coming into force of the present Treaty between Japan and the Allied Power concerned shall be excluded from the running of the normal term of such rights; and such period, with an additional period of six months, shall be excluded from the time within which a literary work must be translated into Japanese in order to obtain translating rights in Japan.


Article 16


As an expression of its desire to indemnify those members of the armed forces of the Allied Powers who suffered undue hardships while prisoners of war of Japan, Japan will transfer its assets and those of its nationals in countries which were neutral during the war, or which were at war with any of the Allied Powers, or, at its option, the equivalent of such assets, to the International Committee of the Red Cross which shall liquidate such assets and distribute the resultant fund to appropriate national agencies, for the benefit of former prisoners of war and their families on such basis as it may determine to be equitable. The categories of assets described in Article 14(a)2(II)(ii) through (v) of the present Treaty shall be excepted from transfer, as well as assets of Japanese natural persons not residents of Japan on the first coming into force of the Treaty. It is equally understood that the transfer provision of this Article has no application to the 19,770 shares in the Bank for International Settlements presently owned by Japanese financial institutions.


Article 17


(a) Upon the request of any of the Allied Powers, the Japanese Government shall review and revise in conformity with international law any decision or order of the Japanese Prize Courts in cases involving ownership rights of nationals of that Allied Power and shall supply copies of all documents comprising the records of these cases, including the decisions taken and orders issued. In any case in which such review or revision shows that restoration is due, the provisions of Article 15 shall apply to the property concerned.


(b) The Japanese Government shall take the necessary measures to enable nationals of any of the Allied Powers at any time within one year from the coming into force of the present Treaty between Japan and the Allied Power concerned to __submit to the appropriate Japanese authorities for review any judgment given by a Japanese court between 7 December 1941 and such coming into force, in any proceedings in which any such national was unable to make adequate presentation of his case either as plaintiff or defendant.The Japanese Government shall provide that, where the national has suffered injury by reason of any such judgment, he shall be restored in the position in which he was before the judgment was given or shall be afforded such relief as may be just and equitable in the circumstances.


Article 18


(a) It is recognized that the intervention of the state of war has not affected the obligation to pay pecuniary debts arising out of obligations and contracts (including those in respect of bonds) which existed and rights which were acquired before the existence of a state of war, and which are due by the Government or nationals of Japan to the Government or nationals of one of the Allied Powers, or are due by the Government or nationals of one of the Allied Powers to the Government or nationals of Japan. The intervention of a state of war shall equally not be regarded as affecting the obligation to consider on their merits claims for loss or damage to property or for personal injury or death which arose before the existence of a state of war, and which may be presented or re-presented by the Government of one of the Allied Powers to the Government of Japan, or by the Government of Japan to any of the Governments of the Allied Powers.The provisions of this paragraph are without prejudice to the rights conferred by Article 14.


(b) Japan affirms its liability for the prewar external debt of the Japanese State and for debts of corporate bodies subsequently declared to be liabilities of the Japanese State, and expresses its intention to enter into negotiations at an early date with its creditors with respect to the resumption of payments on those debts; to encourage negotiations in respect to other prewar claims and obligations; and to facilitate the transfer of sums accordingly.


Article 19


(a) Japan waives all claims of Japan and its nationals against the Allied Powers and their nationals arising out of the war or out of actions taken because of the existence of a state of war, and waives all claims arising from the presence, operations or actions of forces or authorities of any of the Allied Powers in Japanese territory prior to the coming into force of the present Treaty.


(b) The foregoing waiver includes any claims arising out of actions taken by any of the Allied Powers with respect to Japanese ships between 1 September 1939 and the coming into force of the present Treaty, as well as any claims and debts arising in respect to Japanese prisoners of war and civilian internees in the hands of the Allied Powers, but does not include Japanese claims specificially recognized in the laws of any Allied Power enacted since 2 September 1945.


(c) Subject to reciprocal renunciation, the Japanese Government also renounces all claims (including debts) against Germany and German nationals on behalf of the Japanese Government and Japanese nationals, including intergovernmental claims and claims for loss or damage sustained during the war, but excepting (a) claims in respect of contracts entered into and rights acquired before 1 September 1939, and (b) claims arising out of trade and financial relations between Japan and Germany after 2 September 1945.Such renunciation shall not prejudice actions taken in accordance with Articles 16 and 20 of the present Treaty.


(d) Japan recognizes the validity of all acts and omissions done during the period of occupation under or in consequence of directives of the occupation authorities or authorized by Japanese law at that time, and will take no action subjecting Allied nationals to civil or criminal liability arising out of such acts or omissions.


Article 20


Japan will take all necessary measures to ensure such disposition of German assets in Japan as has been or may be determined by those powers entitled under the Protocol of the proceedings of the Berlin Conference of 1945 to dispose of those assets, and pending the final disposition of such assets will be responsible for the conservation and administration thereof.


Article 21


Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 25 of the present Treaty, China shall be entitled to the benefits of Articles 10 and 14(a)2; and Korea to the benefits of Articles 2, 4, 9 and 12 of the present Treaty.


CHAPTER VI


SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES


Article 22


If in the opinion of any Party to the present Treaty there has arisen a dispute concerning the interpretation or execution of the Treaty, which is not settled by reference to a special claims tribunal or by other agreed means, the dispute shall, at the request of any party thereto, be referred for decision to the International Court of Justice. Japan and those Allied Powers which are not already parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice will deposit with the Registrar of the Court, at the time of their respective ratifications of the present Treaty, and in conformity with the resolution of the United Nations Security Council, dated 15 October 1946, a general declaration accepting the jurisdiction, without special agreement, of the Court generally in respect to all disputes of the character referred to in this Article.


CHAPTER VII


FINAL CLAUSES


Article 23


(a) The present Treaty shall be ratified by the States which sign it, including Japan, and will come into force for all the States which have then ratified it, when instruments of ratification have been deposited by Japan and by a majority, including the United States of America as the principal occupying Power, of the following States, namely Australia, Canada, Ceylon, France, Indonesia, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Republic of the Philippines, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America. The present Treaty shall come into force of each State which subsequently ratifies it, on the date of the deposit of its instrument of ratification.


(b) If the Treaty has not come into force within nine months after the date of the deposit of Japans ratification, any State which has ratified it may bring the Treaty into force between itself and Japan by a notification to that effect given to the Governments of Japan and the United States of America not later than three years after the date of deposit of Japans ratification.


Article 24


All instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Government of the United States of America which will notify all the signatory States of each such deposit, of the date of the coming into force of the Treaty under paragraph (a) of Article 23, and of any notifications made under paragraph (b) of Article 23.


Article 25


For the purposes of the present Treaty the Allied Powers shall be the States at war with Japan, or any State which previously formed a part of the territory of a State named in Article 23, provided that in each case the State concerned has signed and ratified the Treaty. Subject to the provisions of Article 21, the present Treaty shall not confer any rights, titles or benefits on any State which is not an Allied Power as herein defined; nor shall any right, title or interest of Japan be deemed to be diminished or prejudiced by any provision of the Treaty in favour of a State which is not an Allied Power as so defined.


Article 26


Japan will be prepared to conclude with any State which signed or adhered to the United Nations Declaration of 1 January 1942, and which is at war with Japan, or with any State which previously formed a part of the territory of a State named in Article 23, which is not a signatory of the present Treaty, a bilateral Treaty of Peace on the same or substantially the same terms as are provided for in the present Treaty, but this obligation on the part of Japan will expire three years after the first coming into force of the present Treaty. Should Japan make a peace settlement or war claims settlement with any State granting that State greater advantages than those provided by the present Treaty, those same advantages shall be extended to the parties to the present Treaty.


Article 27


The present Treaty shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the United States of America which shall furnish each signatory State with a certified copy thereof.


IN FAITH WHEREOF the undersigned Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Treaty.


DONE at the city of San Francisco this eighth day of September 1951, in the English, French, and Spanish languages, all being equally authentic, and in the Japanese language.


[Signatures not reproduced here.]


PROTOCOL


The Undersigned, duly authorized to that effect, have agreed on the following provisions for regulating the question of Contracts, Periods of Prescription and Negotiable Instruments, and the question of Contracts of Insurance, upon the restoration of peace with Japan:


CONTRACTS, PRESCRIPTION AND NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS


A. CONTRACTS


1. Any contract which required for its execution intercourse between any of the parties thereto having become enemies as defined in Part F shall, subject to the exceptions set out in paragraphs 2 and 3 below, be deemed to have been dissolved as from the time when any of the parties thereto became enemies.Such dissolution, however, is without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 15 and 18 of the Treaty of Peace signed this day, nor shall it relieve any party to the contract from the obligation to repay amounts received as advances or as payments on account and in respect of which such party has not rendered performance in return.


2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 above, there shall be excepted from dissolution and, without prejudice to the rights contained in Article 14 of the Treaty of Peace signed this day, there shall remain in force such parts of any contract as are severable and did not require for their execution intercourse between any of the parties thereto, having become enemies as defined in part F. Where the provisions of any contract are not so severable, the contract shall be deemed to have been dissolved in its entirety. The foregoing shall be subject to the application of domestic laws, orders or regulations made by a signatory hereto which is an Allied Power under the said Treaty of Peace and having jurisdiction over the contract or over any of the parties thereto and shall be subject to the terms of the contract.


3. Nothing in part A shall be deemed to invalidate transactions lawfully carried out in accordance with a contract between enemies if they have been carried out with the authorization of the Government concerned being the Government of a signatory hereto which is an Allied Power under the said Treaty of Peace.


4. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, contracts of insurance and reinsurance shall be dealt with in accordance with the provisions of parts D and E of the present Protocol.


B. PERIODS OF PRESCRIPTION


1. All periods of prescription or limitation of right of action or of the right to take conservatory measures in respect of relations affecting persons or property, involving nationals of the signatories hereto who, by reason of the state of war, were unable to take judicial action or to comply with the formalities necessary to safeguard their rights, irrespective of whether these periods commenced before or after the outbreak of war, shall be regarded as having been suspended, for the duration of the war in Japanese territory on the one hand, and on the other hand in the territory of those signatories which grant to Japan, on a reciprocal basis, the benefit of the provisions of this paragraph.These periods shall begin to run again on the coming into force of the Treaty of Peace signed this day. The provisions of this paragraph shall be applicable in regard to the periods fixed for the presentation of interest or dividend coupons or for the presentation for payment of securities drawn for repayment or repayable on any other ground, provided that in respect of such coupons or securities the period shall begin to run again on the date when money becomes available for payments to the holder of the coupon or security.


2. Where, on account of failure to perform any act or to comply with any formality during the war, measures of execution have been taken in Japanese territory to the prejudice of a national of one of the signatories being an Allied Power under the said Treaty of Peace, the Japanese Government shall restore the rights which have been detrimentally affected. If such restoration is impossible or would be inequitable the Japanese Government shall provide that the national of the signatory concerned shall be afforded such relief as may be just and equitable in the circumstances.


C. NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS


1. As between enemies, no negotiable instrument made before the war shall be deemed to have become invalid by reason only of failure within the required time to present the instrument for acceptance or payment, or to give notice of non-acceptance or non-payment to drawers or endorsers, or to protest the instrument, nor by reason of failure to complete any formality during the war.


2. Where the period within which a negotiable instrument should have been presented for acceptance or for payment, or within which notice of non-acceptance or non-payment should have been given to the drawer or endorser, or within which the instrument should have been protested, has elapsed during the war, and the party who should have presented or protested the instrument or have given notice of non-acceptance or non-payment has failed to do so during the war, a period of not less than three months from the coming into force of the Treaty of Peace signed this day shall be allowed within which presentation, notice of non-acceptance or non-payment, or protest may be made.


3. If a person has, either before or during the war, incurred obligations under a negotiable instrument in consequence of an undertaking given to him by a person who has subsequently become an enemy, the latter shall remain liable to indemnify the former in respect of these obligations, notwithstanding the outbreak of war.


D. INSURANCE AND REINSURANCE CONTRACTS (OTHER THAN LIFE) WHICH HAD NOT TERMINATED BEFORE THE DATE AT WHICH THE PARTIES BECAME ENEMIES


1. Contracts of Insurance shall be deemed not to have been dissolved by the fact of the parties becoming enemies, provided that the risk had attached before the date at which the parties became enemies, and the Insured had paid, before that date, all moneys owed by way of premium or consideration for effecting or keeping effective the Insurance in accordance with the Contract.


2. Contracts of Insurance other than those remaining in force under the preceding clause shall be deemed not to have come into existence, and any moneys paid thereunder shall be returnable.


3. Treaties and other Contracts of Reinsurance, save as hereinafter expressly provided, shall be deemed to have been determined as at the date the parties became enemies, and all cessions thereunder shall be cancelled with effect from that date. Provided that cessions in respect of voyage policies which had attached under a Treaty of Marine Reinsurance shall be deemed to have remained in full effect until their natural expiry in accordance with the terms and conditions on which the risk had been ceded.


4. Contracts of Facultative Reinsurance, where the risk had attached and all moneys owed by way of premium or consideration for effecting or keeping effective the Reinsurance had been paid or set off in the customary manner, shall, unless the Reinsurance Contract otherwise provides, be deemed to have remained in full effect until the date at which the parties became enemies and to have been determined on that date.


Provided that such Facultative Reinsurances in respect of voyage policies shall be deemed to have remained in full effect until their natural expiry in accordance with the terms and conditions on which the risk had been ceded.


Provided further that Facultative Reinsurances in respect of a Contract of Insurance remaining in force under clause 1 above shall be deemed to have remained in full effect until the expiry of the original Insurance.


5. Contracts of Facultative Reinsurance other than those dealt with in the preceding clause, and all Contracts of Excess of Loss Reinsurance on an "Excess of Loss Ratio" basis and of Hail Reinsurance (whether facultative or not), shall be deemed not to have come into existence, and any moneys paid thereunder shall be returnable.


6. Unless the Treaty or other Contract of Reinsurance otherwise provides, premiums shall be adjusted on a pro rata temporis basis.


7. Contracts of Insurance or Reinsurance (including cessions under Treaties of Reinsurance) shall be deemed not to cover losses or claims caused by belligerent action by either Power of which any of the parties was a national or by the Allies or Associates of such Power.


8. Where an insurance has been transferred during the war from the original to another Insurer, or has been wholly reinsured, the transfer or reinsurance shall, whether effected voluntarily or by administrative or legislative action, be recognized and the liability of the original Insurer shall be deemed to have ceased as from the date of the transfer or reinsurance.


9. Where there was more than one Treaty or other Contract of Reinsurance between the same two parties, there shall be an adjustment of accounts between them, and in order to establish a resulting balance there shall be brought into the accounts all balances (which shall include an agreed reserve for losses still outstanding) and all moneys which may be due from one party to the other under all such contracts or which may be returnable by virtue of any of the foregoing provisions.


10. No interests shall be payable by any of the parties for any delay which, owing to the parties having become enemies, has occurred or may occur in the settlement of premiums or claims or balances of account.


11. Nothing in this part of the present Protocol shall in any way prejudice or affect the rights given by Article 14 of the Treaty of Peace signed this day.


E. LIFE INSURANCE CONTRACTS


Where an insurance has been transferred during the war from the original to another Insurer or has been wholly reinsured, the transfer or reinsurance shall, if effected at the instance of the Japanese administrative or legislative authorities, be recognized, and the liability of the original Insurer shall be deemed to have ceased as from the date of the transfer or reinsurance.


F. SPECIAL PROVISION


For the purposes of the present Protocol, natural or juridical persons shall be regarded as enemies from the date when trading between them shall have become unlawful under laws, orders, or regulations to which such persons or the contracts were subject.


FINAL ARTICLE


The present Protocol is open for signature by Japan and any State signatory to the Treaty of Peace with Japan signed this day, and shall, in respect of the matters with which it deals, govern the relations between Japan and each of the other States signatory to the present Protocol as from the date when Japan and that State are both bound by the said Treaty of Peace.


The present Protocol shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the United States of America which shall furnish each signatory State with a certified copy thereof.


IN FAITH WHEREOF the undersigned Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Protocol.


DONE at the city of San Francisco this eighth day of September 1951, in the English, French, and Spanish languages, all being equally authentic, and in the Japanese language.


[Signatures not reproduced here.]


INSTRUMENT OF SURRENDER BY JAPAN


We, acting by command of and in behalf of the Emperor of Japan, the Japanese Government and the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters, hereby accept the provisions set forth in the declaration issued by the heads of the Governments of the United States, China and Great Britain on 26 July 1945 at Potsdam, and subsequently adhered to by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which four powers are hereafter referred to as the Allied Powers.


We hereby proclaim the unconditional surrender to the Allied Power of the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters and of all Japanese armed forces and all armed forces under Japanese control wherever situated.


We hereby command all Japanese forces wherever situated and the Japanese people to cease hostilities forthwith, to preserve and save from damage all ships, aircraft, and military and civil property and to comply with all requirements which may be imposed by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers or by agencies of the Japanese Government at his direction.


We hereby command the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters to issue at once orders to the Commanders of all Japanese forces and all forces under Japanese control wherever situated to surrender unconditionally themselves and all forces under their control.


We hereby command all civil, military and naval officials to obey and enforce all proclamations, orders and directives deemed by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers to be proper to effectuate this surrender and issued by him or under his authority and we direct all such officials to remain at their posts and to continue to perform their non-combatant duties unless specifically relieved by him or under his authority.


We hereby undertake for the Emperor, the Japanese Government and their successors to carry out the provisions of the Potsdam Declaration in good faith, and to issue whatever orders and take whatever action may be required by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers or by any other designated representative of the Allied Powers for the purpose of giving effect to that Declaration.


We hereby command the Japanese Imperial Government and the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters at once to liberate all allied prisoners of war and civilian internees now under Japanese control and to provide for their protection, care, maintenance and immediate transportation to places as directed.


The authority of the Emperor and the Japanese Government to rule the state shall be subject to the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers who will take such steps as he deems proper to effectuate these terms of surrender.


SIGNED at Tokyo Bay, Japan at 0904 I on the Second day of September, 1945.


[Signed:]


MAMORU SHIGEMITSU


By Command and in behalf of the Emperor of Japan and the Japanese Government


[Signed:]


YOSHIJIRO UMEZU


By Command and in behalf of the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters


ACCEPTED at Tokyo Bay, Japan at 0908 I on the Second day of September, 1945, for the United States, Republic of China, United Kingdom and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and in the interests of the other United Nations at war with Japan.


[Signed:]


DOUGLAS MACARTHUR


Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers


[Signed:]


C W NIMITZ


Representative of the United States of America


HSU YOUNG-CHANG


Representative of the Republic of China


BRUCE FRASER


Representative of the United Kingdom


DEREVYANKO


Representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics


T A BLAMEY


Representative of Australia


MOORE COSGRAVE


Representative of Canada


LECLERC


Representative of the Provisional Government of the French Republic


D E L HELFRICH


Representative of the Kingdom of the Netherlands


LEONARD M ISITT


Representative of New Zealand



      • -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

<翻訳文>

※ 深刻に見た条約文の意図を 毀損することができる翻訳が発見されれば掲示板に文を残して ください.

対日強化条約
1951年, 9月 8日
アメリカ, カリフォルニア州サンフランシスコ


連合国と日本は今後の養子の関係が同等な主権国家としての関係が成立されるので, 相互共同福祉の増進と国際平和と安全の維持のために友好的な提携の下協力して, 双方間戦争状態存在結果としてまだ未決で残っている問題を解決する平和条約を希望する....

日本は国連会員国加入を申し込む一方すべての状況に国連憲章の原則を守って, 世界人権宣言の目的を実現するために努力して, 国連憲章第55条及び第56に規定されていて降参の後もう日本の法令によって始まった安定及び福祉の条件を日本内に新たにつくること ため努力して, 工事の貿易と通常に対して国際的に承認された公正な慣行による意図を宣言して.....

連合国は前段落で提示された日本の意図を歓迎するので,

連合国及び日本は, 見た平和条約を締結することに決めたし, これによって下に署名した全権委員を任命した. このような全権委員は, その全権委任状を表示して, それが良好妥当だと認めた後, 次の規定に合議した.

第1章平和

第1条

(a) 日本と各連合国の間の戦争状態は, 第23条が決めるところによって見た条約が日本と該当の連合国の間に效力を起こす日から終了する.

(b) 連合国は, 日本及びその領海内の水域に対する日本国民の完全な株券を承認する.

第2章領域

第2条

(a) 日本は韓国の独立を承認して済州島, 巨文島及び鬱陵島を含む韓国に対するすべての権利・権原及び請求権をあきらめる.

(b) 日本は台湾及びペングホ(膨湖)制度に対するすべての権利・権原及び請求権をあきらめる.

(c) 日本は千島列島及び日本が 1905年 9月 5日のポーツマス条約の結果として株券を獲得したサハリン島(がラフト, 横太)の一部及びここに近接する制度にデヒャですべての権利・権原及び請求権をあきらめる.

(d) 日本は国際連盟の委任統治制度に関するすべての権利・権原及び請求権をあきらめてまた以前に日本の委任統治の下にあった太平洋の制度に信託統治制度を施行する 1947年 4月 2日国連安全保障理事会の行動を受諾する.

(e)日本は日本国民の活動に由来するとかあるいはその他にユレハゴナを問わず南極地域のすべての部分に対する権利や権原またはすべての部分に関する利益に官下女壻の請求権を全面的にあきらめる.

(f)日本はナムサ(南沙)君も及び敍事(西沙)群島に対するすべての権利・権原及び請求権をあきらめる.

第3条

日本は, 北魏 29度以南の難セイ列島(琉球列島及び太東列島を含み), 捜狐癌(孀婦岩) 南側の南方制度(小笠原諸島, Nishinoシマ及び火山列島を含み) 及びOki怒涛里シマ(沖鳥島), Minami道理シマ(南鳥島)をアメリカ合衆国を唯一の施政権者にして彼の信託統治制度の下に残す国連に対するアメリカ合衆国のどんな提案にも同意する. このような提案及びその上に確固な行動があるまで, ミヒップズンググックは, 領海内の水域を含んだこのような制度(諸島)の領域と住民に対して, 行政, 立法と司法上権力の全部及び一部を行使する権利を持つことにする.

第4条

(a) この条項の (b)の規定を保留しながら日本及びその国民の財産としての第2条に提示された地域にあること及び日本とその国民の請求権(債券を含み)で現在これら地域の行政を引き受けている政府とその所の住民(法人を含み)に対するのの処理及び日本でのこれら政府と住民の財産及び日本とその国民に対するこれら政府と住民の請求権(債券を含み)の処理は日本とこれら政府間の特別協定の主題にする.
第2条に提示された地域にある連合国またはその住民の財産は未返還状態にある限り是正を引き受けている政府が現象で返還しなければならない.国民と言う用語をこの条約で使う時には法人を含む).

(b) 日本は第2条及び第3条に提示される地域中のどの所でもアメリカ合衆国君政府によってあるいはその指令によって行われた日本国及びその国民財産の処理の效力を承認する.

(c) 日本とこの条約によって日本の支配から除かれる領域を連結する日本所有の海底電線は 2等分されて日本は従犯施設及びここに繋がれる電線の半分を保有して, 分離する領域は残り電線とその終点施設を保有する.

第3章安全

第5条

(a)日本は, 国連憲章第2条で説明した義務, 特に次の義務を収容する.

(i) 国際平和と安全及び正義に危なげではないように平和的手段で国際紛争を解決する義務.

(ii) ある国家の領土保存または政治的独立に対する, 無力による脅威または無力の行事と または, 国連の目的と一致しないどんな他の方法によることも慎む 義務.

(iii) 国連が憲章によって酔うどんな行動に対しても国連にすべての援助を供与する一方国連が防止または強制行動を取るどんな国に対しても援助の供与を慎む義務.

(b) 連合国は日本との関係に対して国連憲章第2条の原則をすべることでしなければならないことを確認する.

(c) 連合国は日本が主権国家として国連憲章第51条に言及されている 個別的または集団的自慰の固有した権利を所有しているし, 日本が共同安全協定を自発的に締結することができることを承認する.

第6条

(a) 連合国のすべての占領軍は, この条約の效力発生の後できるだけ速かに, その後, 90日以内にはどんな場合にも日本から撤収しなければならない. しかし, この規定は, 一つまたはふたつ以上の連合国を一方で, 日本を他の一方にする 双方の間に締結されたあるいは締結される 2国家間あるいは多数国間の協定に根拠することとして, その結果として日本領土に外国軍隊を駐屯させるとか駐屯を邪魔することではない

(b) 日本軍隊の本国への復帰を扱っている, 1945年 7月 26日のポツダム宣言第9項の規定は, まだその実施が完了していない限り実行されることにする.

(c) まだ補償が支払いされないあらゆる日本財産は占領軍の使用に提供される一方, 見た条約の效力発生の時に占領軍が占有している財産は, 相互合意によって他の協定がない以上, 上述した 90日以内に日本政府に返還しなければならない.

第7条

(a) 各連合国は, 自国と日本の間に見た条約が效力を発生させた後一年以内に, 日本と 戦前の双方間条約または協約に対して效力を維持させるとか復活を希望するはずなのかを日本にトンゴすることにして, こんなに通告された条約や協約は本条約に相応しさを確保するための必要な修正を受けることだけでずっと有效なことで思われるとか復活される.

こんなに通告された条約と協約は通告した後 3ヶ月間続いて有效なことで見なされるとか復活されて, 国連事務局に登録されなければならない. 日本はこんなに通告されないあらゆる条約と協約は廃棄されたこととして見做す.

(b) この条項の (a) によって実施されたトンゴは通告国が責任を負う国際関係に対する条約や協約の施行や復活から除かれることができるし, 除外の適用を禁止するのが日本にトンゴされる日の 3ヶ月後まで行われることにする.

第8条

(a) 日本は 1939年 9月 1日に始まった戦争状態終了のために連合国によって決まった現在または今後の締結するすべての条約のみならず, 平和回復のためにあるいはこれと関して実施されたどんな他の合意に対してもその完全な效力を承認する.日本はまた以前の国際連盟及び常設国際司法裁判所を終決させるために行われた合意を受諾する.

(b) 日本は 1919年 9月 10日 St. サンジェルマンアングレの製造薬及び 1936年 7月 20日のモントルー海峡条約の署名国であることで由来した, 1923年 7月 24日ロジャンヌで署名されたトルコとの平和条約第16条から由来した, すべての権利と利益をあきらめる.

(c) 日本は 1930年 1月 20日ドイツとその債権国の間の協定, 1930年 5月 17日信託協定を含んだその議定書及び 1930年 1月 20日国際決済銀行に関する条約, 国際決済銀行の定款によって得たすべての権利, 権原及び利益をあきらめる. 日本はこの段落に言及されたすべての権利, 権原及び利益の放棄を見た協定の效力が初めて発生する 6ヶ月の内にパリ外務省に通告することにする.

第4章政治及び経済条項

第9条

日本は公害における漁業の規制または制限及び漁業の保存と発展を規定する 2国間と多数国間の協定を締結するために希望する連合国と早い内に交渉を開始する事にする.

第10条

日本は, 1901年 9月 7日に北京で署名された最終議定書及びこれを補うすべての議定書, 書簡と文書の規定から発生するすべての利益及び特権を含んだ中国におけるすべての特殊な権利及び利益をあきらめて, 言及された議定書, 付属書, 書簡及び文書中日本に関して廃棄することに同意する.

第11条

日本は, 極東国際軍事法廷及び日本国内・以外の他の連合国戦争犯罪法廷の裁判を受諾して, 日本に収監されている日本国民にこのような法廷が賦課した刑を執行することにする. このような収監者たちに対する四面と減刑及び仮出獄させる権限は, 各事件に対して兄さん(型)を賦課した一つまたはふたつ以上の政府の決定及び日本の勧告による以外には行使することができない. 極東国際軍事法廷が兄さんを宣告した人の場合において, そういう権限は, 法廷を代表する政府の過半数決定と日本の勧告による以外には行使することができない.

第12条

(a)日本は各連合国と貿易海運その他の関係を安定してからも友好的な基礎に乗せるために条約または協定を締結するための交渉を早い内に開始する容疑があることを宣言する.

(b) あたる弔文または協定が締結されるまで日本国はこの条約の效力発生後 4年間

(1)各連合国及びその国民, 産品及び船舶に次の待遇をする.

(i)貨物の輸出入に対するまたはここに関する関税課金制限, その他の規制に対する最恵国大宇.

(ii)海運, 航海及び輸出貨物に関する内国民大宇及び自然人, 法人とその理解に関する内国民大宇, この大宇は税金の賦課及び取り立て, 裁判受けること, 契約締結及び移行, 財産権(有体財産及び 無体財産に関する), 日本の法律に基づいて組職された法人への参加及び一般のすべての種類の事業活動と職業活動の遂行に関するすべての事項を含み.

(2)日本の国営上・企業の国外における売価商業的高麗にだけよるということを確保する.

(c) しかしどんな事項に関しても日本は連合国があって事項に関してそれぞれ内国民大宇または最恵国民大宇を日本にしてくれる限度においてだけあって連合国で内国民大宇または最恵国民待遇をする義務を負担することにする. 全段に決めた相互主義は連合国の秘本土地役の産品, 船舶, 法人及びその所に住所を持つ人の場合及び連邦政府を持つ連合国の部屋(邦) または州(州)において日本に与えられる大宇に照らして決まる.

(d) この条項の適用上, 差別措置なので彼を適用する当事者の通商條約に通常規定されている例外によること, その当事国の対外的財政状態あるいは国際収支を保護する必要によること(海洋及び航海に関する除き), または重大な安全上の利益を維持する必要による

  • 最終更新:2009-03-06 11:54:02

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