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Friday, May 02, 2008
"Hwangseong Sinmun" (皇城新聞) 1899 Sep 23: Ulleungdo
Below is my translation (with the help of Kaneganese, Chaamiey, and Matsu) of a special report on the Korean island of Ulleungdo (鬱陵島), from the September 23, 1899 edition of the Korean newspaper, Hwangseong Sinmun (皇城新聞). The article gives general information about Ulleungdo and then gives a summary of a report prepared by E. Laporte (羅保得), who worked at the Korean Customs Office in Busan and who went to Ulleungdo at the end of June 1899 to inspect the problem of Japanese settlers and merchants coming to the island. The article seems to have been written after a September 16 request by the Korean Foreign Ministry to the head of the Japanese mission in Korea to have the Japanese on Ulleungdo removed.

The article is important in the Dokdo/Takeshima debate mainly because of the description of Ulleungdo in its first two sentences, which follow:
蔚珍之東海에 一島가 有하니 曰鬱陵이라 其附屬한 小六島中에 最著者는 于山島竹島이니.


There is an island in the sea east of Uljin called "Ulleung." Among its six, small neighboring islands, the most prominent one is Usando/Jukdo.

The above sentence is important in the Dokdo/Takeshima debate because it seems to be using two names, "Usando/Jukdo" (于山島竹島), to refer to Ulleungdo's most prominent neighboring island. In other words, the 1899 article seems to be saying that Ulleungdo's "most prominent" neighboring island of Jukdo, which is about two kilometers off Ulleungdo's east shore, was also called "Usando," which would be more evidence disproving the Korean claim that Usando was the old name for Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo/Takeshima).

Korean historians, however, claim that the above sentence was not referring to one island with two names, but to two separate islands. They claim that the sentence should be translated as, "Among its six, small neighboring islands, the most prominent ones are Usando and Jukdo." The problem with translating "于山島竹島" as "Usando and Jukdo," is that the Korean article did not use the word "and" to separate the two names, even though the word "and" (과/와) and commas were used to separate list items in other parts of the article. Here are some examples:

所産은 柴胡, 藁本, 石楠, 藤草, 香木, 槻木, 蘆竹
Its products are siho, gobon, seoknam, wisteria, juniper, zelkova, nojuk....
.
香木과 蘆竹
juniper and nojuk

船匠商客과 漁人耕夫가
shipbuilders/merchants and fishermen/farmers

薯와 豆
potatoes and beans

上年所穫이 薯 二萬包, 大麥 二萬包, 黃豆一萬包, 小麥五千包이오
Last year's harvest was 20,000 po of potatoes, 20,000 po of barley, 10,000 po of yellow beans, 5,000 po of wheat.

材木은 老年巨杉과 各種貴重寶木이 亦多하고
The are many wood products, including Japanese cedar and a variety of rare, valuable trees.
Notice in the above examples that commas were used to separate three or more list items, and an "and" (과/와) was used to separate two list items, which show us that the reporter was trying to follow modern punctuation rules rather than leaving list items unpunctuated, as was the case in older Korean documents. Therefore, if the reporter had wanted to refer to Usando and Jukdo as two separate islands, the above examples suggest that he would have used an "and" between Usando and Jukdo (e.g. 于山島와 竹島), instead of Usando/Jukdo (于山島竹島).

There are a few examples in the text where commas were not used to separate list items, but in those cases, there is no ambiguity since the words were either idiomatically linked together or were obviously separate list items. Moreover, the instances of the unpuncuated list items all occured in the last half of the article, which is a summary of the report submitted to the Korean Ministry of Interior, where officials there may have translated the foreign language report using their own style of punctuation. The reporter who wrote the article may have just copied directly from the Ministry translation.

More evidence that the "Usando/Jukdo" (于山島竹島) reference in the article was referring to one island, not two, is Korea's 1900 Imperial Edict 41, which made Ulleungdo a county of Korea's Gangwon Province. In that edict, Jukdo was mentioned as one of Ulleungdo's neighboring islands, but not Usando, suggesting, again, that Usando was just an alternate name for Jukdo, which is supported by several old Korean maps and documents.

At any rate, even if the "Usando/Jukdo" (于山島竹島) phrase had been referring to two separate islands, neither of the islands would have been Liancourt Rocks since Liancourt Rocks is NOT one of Ulleungdo's "most prominent" (最著者) neighboring islands. In fact, Liancourt Rocks can very rarely be seen from Ulleungdo, and then only from high elevations when atmosperic conditions are just right. That is because Liancourt Rocks is just a very small grouping of rocky islets ninety-two kilometers southeast of Ulleungdo. Such islets would not have been referred to as one of Ulleungdo's "most prominent" neighboring islands.

Also, the article said that "sea lions" (可之) "used to" (古에) live on Ulleungdo, which means they were no longer living on Ulleungdo in 1899. Since sea lions were still living on Liancourt Rocks in 1899, the sentence in the article saying that sea lions "used to" live on Ulleungdo is more evidence that the Usando mentioned in the article was not referring to Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo/Takeshima).

Below is my translation of the article and the article, itself. If you find any errors or have any suggests for improving it, please let me know in the Comments section. (Click twice on the article below to enlarge it.)

Special Report (別報)

Ulleungdo Situation (鬱陵島 事況)

There is an island in the sea east of Uljin called "Ulleung" (蔚珍之東海에 一島가 有하니 曰鬱陵). Among its six, small neighboring islands (其附屬한 小六島中에) the most prominent one (最著者는) is Usando/Jukdo (于山島竹島이니). According to the Daehanjiji (大韓地誌에 曰), Ulleungdo is the old country of Usan (鬱陵島는 古于山國이라). It has an area of 100 ri (地方이 百里오) and three peaks that stand out (三峰이 律兀한되).

Its products are (所産은) siho (柴胡 – bupleurum root), gobon (藁本 Ligusticum sinense Oliv. root), seoknam (石楠 – Photinia serrulata Lindl), wisteria (藤草), juniper (香木), zelkova (槻木), and nojuk [(蘆竹 - a reed-like bamboo)이오]. The land is suitable for barley (土性은 宜麥하고). In the past (古에), there were water animals that looked like cows without horns that were called “gaji” (牛形無角한 水獸가 有하니 名曰可之오). There are also seabirds that are called "gwakjo" (海鳥가 有하니 名曰 霍鳥러라).

There are few people on the island (島中에 人烟이 稀少하야), so the government exempts them from paying tax (國家에서 公稅를 免徵하고). Every three years (每式年에), the authority in the neighboring region (附近地方官으로) selected and sent emissaries (差使員을 定送하야) to inspect the situation on the island (島中情形도 査察하고) just bring back juniper and nojuk to present to the king (香木과 蘆竹을 裁還하야 御貢할 뿐이러니).

In 1883 (癸未年에), the royal court (朝廷에서) appointed Kim Ok-gyun as the Southeast Islands Development & Whaling Official (金玉均으로 東南諸島開拓史兼捕鯨使를 任하고) and appointed Baek Chun-bae as his assistant (白春培로 從事官을 任하야). They were given the task of settling the island (該島開拓事務를 辦理케하였더니), but because of the Gapshin Coup the following year (翌年 甲申의 變을 因하야), they could not achieve much (泰效치못하였고). Afterwards, in 1888 (其後戊子年에), island resident Seo Gyeong-su was appointed Wolsong Commander and given the duty of increasing the island’s population and preventing the illegal harvesting of the island’s forest by foreigners. (島民徐敬秀로 越松萬戶를 差定하야 該島人民을 繁殖하고 外國人의 樹木侵伐하는 弊를 防禦케 하였더니), but Seo Gyeong-su died the following year before completing the job (翌年에 徐敬秀가 身死未遂하였고).

In 1895 (開國五百四年에), the Ministry of the Interior appointed island resident Bae Gye-ju as the Island Supervisor and had him manage the island (內部에서 本島民 裵季周로 島監을 任하야 島務를 管理케하였더니).

In the spring of this year (1899), Bae Gye-ju reported to the Ministry of Interior that Japanese had recently been arriving in large numbers and were cutting down trees, encroaching on residents, and causing disturbances (本年春에 裵季周가 內部에 來報하되 近者에 日本人이 夥數流入하야 樹木을 斫伐하고 居民을 侵擾하니), and requested that the government establish law and order (政府에서 設法防護하기를 請함의), which prompted the Interior Ministry to request Sir John McLeavy Brown, chief commissioner of the Korean Customs Service, to dispatch one Westerner to the island to investigate the situation there (內部에서 海關總稅務士 柏卓安에게 委託하야 西人一員을 派送하야 該島情形을 査報케 하였더니). A summary of the report follows (其報告의 槪況이 如左하니):

Ulleungdo is about 200 ri from land (鬱陵島는 距陸二百餘里오). It has an area estimated to be about seventy-five square ri (面積은 約計 七十五方里니). The entire island had little cultivated land (遍嶋中에 耕植하는 地는 不多하고), and there was a thick forest of trees from the seashore to the mountain ridge (樹木이 海濱으로 從하야 山嶺까지 鬱密하였는되). The height of the mountain is calculated to be 4,000 English feet (山高는 計有四千英尺이오). The depth of the water within three ri of the shore is between 6,000 and 9,600 English feet (距岸三里內의 水深은 自六千至九千六百英尺이라).

There are about 300 families of men and women living on the island (居民은 男女 約 三百口이니). Over the past couple of decades (數十年來로), shipbuilders/merchants and fishermen/farmers have gradually come to live together on the island. (漸次 船匠商客과 漁人耕夫가 相隨而至하야 居生하는되). Since the water is extremely deep, it is said that fishing is unprofitable, but annual shipments of seaweed reach as much as 2,000 dam (海水가 太深하야 魚産은 未益하고다만 海菜의 運出이 每年에 二千 擔에 多至하고).

The land is fertile, so fertilization with night soil is unnecessary (土質은 膏沃하야 糞漑 를 要치아니하고), but wood ash is plowed into the fields to achieve two harvest a year (樹叢燼灰로 覆耕하야 一年兩熟을 得하니). Barley and wheat are planted in the spring (春季에는 大小麥이오), and potatoes and beans in the fall (秋季에는 薯와 豆인 되). Last year’s harvest was 20,000 po of potatoes, 20,000 po of barley, 10,000 po of yellow beans, and 5,000 po of wheat (上年所穫이 薯 二萬包, 大麥 二萬包, 黃豆一萬包, 小麥五千包이오). The incline of the land is too steep to grow rice (地勢가 太斜하야 禾穀은 耕作지 못 하고). There are many wood products, including old, large Japanese cedar and a variety of rare, valuable trees (材木은 老年巨杉과 各種貴重寶木이 亦多하고). There are zelkova, juniper, pine nut, and Integra holly (槻木 香木 柏子木 甘湯木이 産有하어라).

Trade with the mainland is extremely rare, but they occasionally get a shipment of only a few po of such things as foodstuff, tobacco, and cotton cloth (大陸과 通商이 極少한 되 往往히 商簇의 輸入하는 物貨는 食物烟草布疋 等數包 뿐이오.) The goods they ship out is mainly seaweed, but also lumber, and occasionally clothes (其 載出하는 物品은 海菜가 居多하고 板木 間或 裝 運하더라).

Among the confusion of seal peaks and rock cliffs along the shoreline (嶋邊海狗峯石壁亂叢中에), there is a small inlet about 100 English feet wide (一小灣이有하니 約闊一百 英尺이라), where Japanese ships loaded with such imports as rice, salt, pottery, Japanese wine, wool, cotton cloth, kerosene, matches, and umbrellas trade with the locals using the barter method (該灣으로 日本船商의 輸入品은 米 塩 瓷器 日本酒 洋布 木綿 火油 火柴 雨傘等件인되 土民으로더부러 交易하는 法은 物로物을易하고). Besides beans and barley, the exported goods include wood that is cut indiscriminately from all over the mountain, loaded onto ships, and carried away--the price is insufficient (其輸出品은 豆麥外에 満山材木을 亂斫鋸削하야 船隻에 載往하는者--其値가 不實하고).

There are places on the island where about 200 Japanese have built houses and are living temporarily (本嶋中에 築室旅居하는 日本人이 二百餘名인되). They encroach on the locals and have inappropriate relations (土民을 侵凌하야 相関하는 弊가 有하어라). The farmers and merchants are originally not taxed 農民商民의 公税는 原定함이 無하고), but, the island supervisor is collecting one-tenth of the seaweed (但 嶋監이 海菜에는 十分의一을 徵하고) and a wood charge of 100 ryang per ship (木料에는 毎船一隻에 葉一百 兩을 徴하여). When the Japanese sell goods, they pay only a negotiated fee of two percent, but no tax (日本人은 賣貨時 口文(百抽二)外에는 納税함이 無하더라).

In September of this year, the Interior Ministry (本年九月에 内部에서), based on the above report (右項報告을 等因하야), requested that the Foreign Ministry request the head of the Japanese mission in Korea (外部에 照會하였더니 外部에서 駐京日本公使에게 照會하야) to promise to set a date to remove the Japanese trespassing on the island (該嶋에 潜越한 日本人을 訂期刷還하고) and stop and prohibit the stuggling trade from non-trade ports. (不通商港口에 密輸買賣함을 禁戢케하라하였더라).




Posted by Gerry Bevers at 11:06 PM
Labels: Docs: Korean
52 comments:
Gerry Bevers said...
Special Report (別報)

Ulleungdo Situation(鬱陵島 事況)

There is an island in the sea east of Uljin called Ulleung (蔚珍之東海에 一島가 有하니 曰鬱陵). Among its six, small neighboring islands (其附屬한 小六島中에) the most prominent one (最著者는) is Usando/Jukdo (于山島竹島니). According to the Daehanjiji (大韓地誌에 曰), Ulleungdo is the old country of Usan (鬱陵島는 古于山國이라). It has an area of 100 ri (地方이 百里오) and three peaks that stand out (三峰이 律兀한되).

Its products are (所産은) siho (柴胡 – bupleurum root), gobon (藁本 Ligusticum sinense Oliv. root), seoknam (石楠 – Photinia serrulata Lindl), juniper (香木), zelkova (槻木), and nojuk (蘆竹 - a reed-like bamboo). The land is suitable for barley (土性은 宜麥하고). In the past (古에), there were water animals that looked like cows without horns that were called “gaji” (牛形無角한 水獸가 有하니 名曰可之오). There are also seabirds that are called "gwakjo" (海鳥가 有하니 名曰 霍鳥러라).

There are few people on the island (島中에 人烟이 稀少하야), so the government exempts them from paying tax (國家에서 公稅를 免徵하고). Every three years (每式年에) the authority in the neighboring region (附近地方官으로) selects and sends an emissary (差使員을 定送하야) to inspect the situation on the island (島中情形도 査察하고) and bring back juniper and nojuk to present to the king (香木과 蘆竹을 御貢할 뿐이러니).

In 1883 (癸未年에), the royal court (朝廷에서) appointed Kim Ok-gyun as the Southeast Islands Development & Whaling Official (金玉均으로 東南諸島開拓史兼捕鯨使를 任하고) and appointed Baek Chun-bae as his assistant (白春培로 從事官을 임하야). They were given the task of settling the island (該島開拓事務를 辦理케하였더니), but because of the “Gapshin Coup” the following year (翌年 甲申의 變을 因하야), they could not achieve much (泰效치못하였고). Afterwards, in 1888 (其後戊子年에), island resident Seo Gyeong-su was appointed Wolsong Commander (島民徐敬秀로 越松萬戶를 差定하야)

該島人民을 繁殖하고 外國人의 樹木侵伐하는 *를 防*케 하였더니 翌年에 徐敬秀가 身死未*하였고 開國五百四年에 內部에서 本島民 裵季周로 島監을 任하야 島務를 管理케하였더니 本年春에 裵季周가 內部에 來報하되 近者에 日本人이 夥數流入하야 樹木을 斫伐하고 居民을 侵*하니 政府에서 設法防設하기를

12:10 AM
Kaneganese said...
Gerry, this is what I could read. GTOMR and pacifist are having a long holiday, so it could be just me...I'm stuck in a school schedule. Anyway, here it is.

There is an island in the sea east of Uljin called Ulleung (蔚珍之東海에 一島가 有하니 曰鬱陵). Among its six, small neighboring islands (其附屬한 小六島中에) the most prominent one (最著者는) is Usando/Jukdo (于山島竹島니). According to the Daehanjiji (大韓地誌에 曰), Ulleungdo is the old country of Usan (鬱陵島는 古于山國이라). It has an area of 100 ri (地方이 百里오) and three peaks that stand out (三峰이 律兀한되).

Its products are (所産은) siho (柴胡 – bupleurum root), gobon (藁本 Ligusticum sinense Oliv. root), seoknam (石楠 – Photinia serrulata Lindl), 藤草,juniper (香木), zelkova (槻木), and nojuk (蘆竹 - a reed-like bamboo). The land is suitable for barley (土性은 宜麥하고). In the past (古에), there were water animals that looked like cows without horns that were called “gaji” (牛形無角한 水獸가 有하니 名曰可之오). There are also seabirds that are called "gwakjo" (海鳥가 有하니 名曰 霍鳥러라).

There are few people on the island (島中에 人烟이 稀少하야), so the government exempts them from paying tax (國家에서 公稅를 免徵하고). Every three years (每式年에) the authority in the neighboring region (附近地方官으로) selects and sends an emissary (差使員을 定送하야) to inspect the situation on the island (島中情形도 査察하고) and bring back juniper and nojuk to present to the king (香木과 蘆竹을 裁還??御貢할 뿐이러니).

In 1883 (癸未年에), the royal court (朝廷에서) appointed Kim Ok-gyun as the Southeast Islands Development & Whaling Official (金玉均으로 東南諸島開拓史兼捕鯨使를 任하고) and appointed Baek Chun-bae as his assistant (白春培로 從事官을 任하야). They were given the task of settling the island (該島開拓事務를 辦理케하였더니), but because of the “Gapshin Coup” the following year (翌年 甲申의 變을 因하야), they could not achieve much (泰效치못하였고). Afterwards, in 1888 (其後戊子年에), island resident Seo Gyeong-su was appointed Wolsong Commander (島民徐敬秀로 越松萬戶를 差定하야)

該島人民을 繁殖하고 外國人의 樹木侵伐하는 発(?)를 防飛(?)케 하였더니 翌年에 徐敬秀가 身死未遂하였고 開國五百四年에 內部에서 本島民 裵季周로 島監을 任하야 島務를 管理케하였더니 本年春에 裵季周가 內部에 來報하되 近者에 日本人이 夥數流入하야 樹木을 斫伐하고 居民을 侵擾하니 政府에서 設法防護하기를

1:04 AM
Gerry Bevers said...
Thank you, Kaneganese. I will try to do the rest of the translation when I get home tonight.

By the way, in the process of translating this article, I have noticed something very important that I do not think anyone has been written about before.

In the Dokdo/Takeshima debate, the most important sentence in the article is the following:

Among its six, small neighboring islands (其附屬한 小六島中에) the most prominent one (最著者는) is Usando/Jukdo (于山島竹島니).

Korean historians mistranslate 于山島島竹島 as "Usando and Jukdo," but the problem with that translation is that there is no "and" in the original phrase. If you look at the other sentenes in the article, you will notice that they use "and" (과) and commas to separate list items, but there is no "and" or comma used between "Usando" and "Jukdo." For example, if you look at the island product list, you will notice that the product items are separated by commas, which are used to separate three or more list items. Also, to separate two list items an "and" (과) is used as can be seen in the following sentence:

bring back juniper and nojuk to present to the king (香木과 蘆竹을 御貢할 뿐이러니).

Therefore, since commas and "and" are used to separate other list items in the article, we can know that 于山島竹島 was not meant to be two separate items. That means that 于山島竹島 should be translated as "Usando/Jukdo," which tells us that two names were used to refer to the same island.

10:05 AM
Kaneganese said...
"If you look at the other sentenes in the article, you will notice that they use "and" (과) and commas to separate list items, but there is no "and" or comma used between "Usando" and "Jukdo."

Yes, you are right. Why we didn't notice that? We should collect all the documents we can get and peruse them once again and try to render what was going on and what 石島 really indicate around 1900. This report, Akatsuka's report and U's Uldo-gi, hopefully La porte's too. Thank you, Gerry.

11:05 AM
Gerry Bevers said...
Kaneganese,

This newspaper article was using modern punctuation rules, but I do not remember any of the other documents using such rules. At any rate, I think these punctuation marks and conjuctions, or the lack of them, are the key to accurately translating this article.

By the way, this article talks about details of La porte's survey report, but I am not sure it there were other details not mentioned here.

12:17 PM
Anonymous said...
嶋邊海狗峯石壁亂叢中에 一小湾이有하니 約濶一百萬尺이라
該湾으로 日本船商의 輸入品은 米 塩 甕○ 日本酒 洋布 木綿 火油 火柴 雨傘等件인되 土民으로 더부러 交易하는 法은 物로物을易하고
 其輸出品豆○外에 満山材木을 亂斫鋸削하야 ○隻에 載往하는者 其値가 不賣하고
 本嶋中에 筴室旅居하는  日本人이 二百餘名인되 土民을 侵凌하야 相関하는 弊가 有하어라
 農民商民의 公税는 原定하어 無하고
但 嶋監이 海菜에는 十分의一을 徴하고 木料에는 毎船一隻에 葉一百両을 徴하여 日本人은 賣貨時 口文(百抽二)外에는 納税함이 無하더라





chaamiey

9:14 PM
Kaneganese said...
Thank you, chaamiey !!

Gerry,

I've noticed some of my Japanese posts are started to be quoted in many sites. I guess I have to resume translating your posts soon.

Could you please put this for Japanese readers?

"日本人の皆様へ 現在、この皇城新聞を解読し、英訳する作業を行っています。まずは書き起しから始めていますが、あやふやであったり不明な漢字について、おわかりになる範囲で結構ですので、教えていただければ幸いです。"

Maybe, Korean sentence will be necessary as well?

11:10 PM
Anonymous said...
甕○ → 甕啚(?)

豆○ →豆麥






chaamiey

11:19 PM
Anonymous said...
該島人民을 繁殖하고 外國人의 樹木侵伐하는 発(?)를 防飛(?)

 ↓

該島人民을 繁殖하고 外國人의 樹木侵伐하는 弊(evil or trouble)를 防禦(defend or protect)





chaamiey

11:41 PM
Anonymous said...
本年九月에 内部에서 右項報告을 等因하야 外部에 照會하였더니 外部에서 駐京日本公○○○○○하야 ○○○○○한 日本人을 訂期○○○○○○○○○○○○ 売買함을 禁○케하라하였더라





chaamiey

12:15 AM
Gerry Bevers said...
Thank you, Chaamiey. You saved me a lot of work since I am not very good at reading some of these characters.

Kaneganese and Chaamiey,

I am sorry, but I got home late tonight and realized it will take me a little more time to translate it than I first thought. Maybe, I can finish it tomorrow. Anyway, here is more of the text. If you have time, could you help me fill in the blanks and check for mistakes, please. I am very tired tonight, so there are quite a few blanks (*) in it.
      • ----------------

Afterwards, in 1888 (其後戊子年에), island resident Seo Gyeong-su was appointed Wolsong Commander (島民徐敬秀로 越松萬戶를 差定하야) to increase the island residents and to stop the illegal harvesting of the island’s forest by foreigners. (該島人民을 繁殖하고 外國人의 樹木侵伐하는 弊를 防禦케 하였더니). 翌年에 徐敬秀가 身死未遂하였고 開國五百四年에 內部에서 本島民 裵季周로 島監을 任하야 島務를 管理케하였더니 本年春에 裵季周가 內部에 來報하되 近者에 日本人이 夥數流入하야 樹木을 斫伐하고 居民을 侵擾하니 政府에서 設法防護하기를 *함의 內部에서 Chief Commissioner of the Korean Customs Service (海關總稅務士) Sir John McLeavy Brown (British) 朴卓安에게 委託하야 西人一員을 派送하야 該島情形을 査報케 하였더니 其報告의 槪況이 如左하니

鬱陵島는 距陸二百餘里오 面積은 約計 七十五方里니 遍嶋中에 耕植하는 地는 不多하고 樹木이 海濱으로 從하야 山嶺까지 鬱密하였는되 山高는 計有四千英尺이오 距岸三里內의 水深은 自六千至九千六百英尺이라

居民은 男女 約 三百口이니 數十年來로 漸次 船匠商客과 漁人耕夫가 相隨而至하야 居生하는되 海水가 太深하야 魚産은 未益하고다만 海菜의 連出이 每年에 二千 擔에 多至하고 土質은 膏沃하야 糞漑 를 要치아니하고 樹*燼炭로 *耕하야 一年兩*을 得하니 春季에는 大小麥이오 秋季에는 *와 豆인 되 上年所* 二萬包, 大麥二萬包, 黃豆一萬包, 小麥五千包이오 *勢가 太斜하야 禾穀은 耕作지 못 하고 材木은 老年巨杉과 各種***木이 亦多하고 槻木 香木 柏子木 甘*木이 産*하어라 大陸과 通商이 極少한 되 **히 商簇의 輸入하는 物資는 食物** 布 疋等 數包*이오 其 載出하는 物品은 海*가 居多하고 板木 間或 裝* 하더라
      • -----------------

Kaneganese,

Yes, I have noticed that several of your posts are being linked to, which, of course, is good.

By the way, what does the Japanese say, and where would you like me to post it?

"日本人の皆様へ 現在、この皇城新聞を解読し、英訳する作業を行っています。まずは書き起しから始めていますが、あやふやであったり不明な漢字について、おわかりになる範囲で結構ですので、教えていただければ幸いです。"

3:35 AM
matsu said...
Gerry,

It’s so nice of you to translate Hwangseong Sinmun (皇城新聞) September 23, 1899 edition into English, becouse many people talk about this document, but in many times it is quated only small part of it. This tlanslation will be a big help for many people to talk on a exact text when arguing the issue.

Especially you are identifying the name of trees and animals in latin name. This is surely hard working, but very helpful important.

That's why I like this site ,Kaneganese-san.

Below is my reading.
居民은 男女 約 三百口이니 數十年來로 漸次 船匠商客과 漁人耕夫가 相隨而至하야 居生하는되 海水가 太深하야 魚産은 未益하고다만 海菜의 連出이 每年에 二千 擔에 多至하고 土質은 膏沃하야 糞漑 를 要치아니하고 樹*(叢)燼炭(→灰)로 *(覆)耕하야 一年兩*(熟)을 得하니 春季에는 大小麥이오 秋季에는 *(薯)와 豆인 되 上年所* (穫)二萬包, 大麥二萬包, 黃豆一萬包, 小麥五千包이오 *(地)勢가 太斜하야 禾穀은 耕作지 못 하고 材木은 老年巨杉과 各種***(貴重)*(宝?)木이 亦多하고 槻木 香木 柏子木 甘*(湯)木이 産*(有?)하어라 大陸과 通商이 極少한 되 **(往往)히 商簇의 輸入하는 物資는 食物** (煙草)布 疋等 數包*(等?)이오 其 載出하는 物品은 海*(菜)가 居多하고 板木 間或 裝* (運)하더라

Former part
政府에서 設法防護하기를 * (請)함의

Sir John McLeavy Brown (British)
朴(→柏)卓安

More former part
香木과 蘆竹을 裁還 御貢할 뿐이러니

The meaning of 뿐 is missing. They “only” did~

10:28 AM
matsu said...
For chaamiey‘s part

嶋邊海狗峯石壁亂叢中에 一小湾이有하니 約濶一百萬(→英)尺이라
該湾으로 日本船商의 輸入品은 米 塩 甕○(→「次の下に瓦」器(=陶磁器)) 日本酒 洋布 木綿 火油 火柴 雨傘等件인되 土民으로 더부러 交易하는 法은 物로物을易하고
 其輸出品豆○(I agree this is 麦) 外에 満山材木을 亂斫鋸削하야 ○(船)隻에 載往하는者 其値가 不賣(→資?)하고(I cannot catch the meaning here)
 本嶋中에 筴室旅居하는  日本人이 二百餘名인되 土民을 侵凌하야 相関하는 弊가 有하어라
 農民商民의 公税는 原定하어 無하고
但 嶋監이 海菜에는 十分의一을 徴하고 木料에는 毎船一隻에 葉一百両을 徴하여 日本人은 賣貨時 口文(百抽二)外에는 納税함이 無하더라


The last part is difficult to read because printing is not clear.

本年九月에 内部에서 右項報告을 等因하야 外部에 照會하였더니 外部에서 駐京日本公○○○○○하야(駐京日本公使에照会하야)
 ○○○○○(潜越?)한 日本人을 訂期(刷還)○○(不)○○(岸)○○○(密)○ 売買함을 禁○케하라하였더라

11:00 AM
Kaneganese said...
Thanks a lot, guys

chaameiy and matsu,

Gerry,

I've read theirs and I don't have more correction.

And that sentence was rough translation of your sentence and directed to Japanese visitor for asking them to join in writing and correcting blurrly Chinese Characters in the article and help us to translate, that's all. I thought we won't get many help so we should write it in Japanese too and add after your sentence, since it's a holiday season here. But chaamiey and matsu are helping you now, so I guess we don't need it anymore.

12:16 PM
matsu said...
Gerry,

Your “punctuation marks and conjunctions” theory is very new and attractive!


By the way,
I am wondering which part is a quotation of『大韓地誌』.

The second part, from 「鬱陵島는 古于山國이라」to 「海鳥가 有하니 名曰 霍鳥러라」,is surely a quotation.

But the most beginning part 「蔚珍之東海에 一島가 有하니 曰鬱陵其附屬한 小六島中에最著者는于山島竹島니」is from 『大韓地誌』?

Actually I haven’t read the text of『大韓地誌』, so I am still wondering.


Which is right?

「蔚珍之東海에 一島가 有하니 曰鬱陵其附屬한 小六島中에最著者는于山島竹島니」is a quotation from 『大韓地誌』.

「蔚珍之東海에 一島가 有하니 曰鬱陵其附屬한 小六島中에最著者는于山島竹島니」is a quotation from other document.

「蔚珍之東海에 一島가 有하니 曰鬱陵其附屬한 小六島中에最著者는于山島竹島니」is written by the writer(editor) of『皇城新聞』 himself.

2:28 PM
Anonymous said...
It's my pleasure to join this work,Mr.Bevers,Kaneganese.


居民은 男女 約 三百口이니 數十年來로 漸次 船匠商客과 漁人耕夫가 相隨而至하야 居生하는되 海水가 太深하야 魚産은 未益하고다만 海菜의 連出이 每年에 二千 擔에 多至하고 土質은 膏沃하야 糞漑 를 要치아니하고 樹叢燼炭로 覆耕하야 一年兩熱을 得하니 春季에는 大小麥이오 秋季에는 薯와 豆인 되 上年所穫 二萬包, 大麥二萬包, 黃豆一萬包, 小麥五千包이오 地勢가 太斜하야 禾穀은 耕作지 못 하고 材木은 老年巨杉과 各種貴重寶木이 亦多하고 槻木 香木 柏子木 甘湯木이 産有하어라 大陸과 通商이 極少한 되 往往히 商簇의 輸入하는 物資는 食物烟草 布 疋等 數包*이오 其 載出하는 物品은 海菜가 居多하고 板木 도 間(聞?)或 裝* 하더라





chaamiey

8:25 PM
Gerry Bevers said...
Thank you, Kaneganese, Matsu, and Chaamiey. I would not have been able to figure out some of those Chinese characters without your help.

By the way, I could not find the English name for 甘湯木. Do you have that tree in Japan, and do you know the English name for it?

Matsu,

I have not read all of the Daehanjiji, either, but I think the part they were quoting was the following:

According to the Daehanjiji (大韓地誌에 曰), Ulleungdo is the old country of Usan (鬱陵島는 古于山國이라). It has an area of 100 ri (地方이 百里오) and three peaks that stand out (三峰이 律兀한되).

I do not get the feeling that the writer was quoting the product list since I do not remember seeing that mentioned in what I read. That product list may have come from La Porte's report since the report is only summarized in this article, or the writer may have gotten it from somewhere else.

I have not seen the following phrase mentioned in any other document, so it may have been in La Porte's full report, or writer could have just gathered the information himself from old documents and maps.

「蔚珍之東海에 一島가 有하니 曰鬱陵其附屬한 小六島中에最著者는于山島竹島니」

Anyway, I am still working on the last two paragraphs, but here is what I have translated so far. I would appreciate it if all of you would check it for mistakes.
      • ----------

Special Report (別報)

Ulleungdo Situation (鬱陵島 事況)

There is an island in the sea east of Uljin called Ulleung (蔚珍之東海에 一島가 有하니 曰鬱陵). Among its six, small neighboring islands (其附屬한 小六島中에) the most prominent one (最著者는) is Usando/Jukdo (于山島竹島이니). According to the Daehanjiji (大韓地誌에 曰), Ulleungdo is the old country of Usan (鬱陵島는 古于山國이라). It has an area of 100 ri (地方이 百里오) and three peaks that stand out (三峰이 律兀한되).

Its products are (所産은) siho (柴胡 – bupleurum root), gobon (藁本 Ligusticum sinense Oliv. root), seoknam (石楠 – Photinia serrulata Lindl), juniper (香木), zelkova (槻木), and nojuk (蘆竹 - a reed-like bamboo). The land is suitable for barley (土性은 宜麥하고). In the past (古에), there were water animals that looked like cows without horns that were called “gaji” (牛形無角한 水獸가 有하니 名曰可之오). There are also seabirds that are called "gwakjo" (海鳥가 有하니 名曰 霍鳥러라).

There are few people on the island (島中에 人烟이 稀少하야), so the government exempts them from paying tax (國家에서 公稅를 免徵하고). Every three years (每式年에) the authority in the neighboring region (附近地方官으로) selects and sends an emissary (差使員을 定送하야) to inspect the situation on the island (島中情形도 査察하고) and bring back juniper and nojuk to present to the king (香木과 蘆竹을 御貢할 뿐이러니).

In 1883 (癸未年에), the royal court (朝廷에서) appointed Kim Ok-gyun as the Southeast Islands Development & Whaling Official (金玉均으로 東南諸島開拓史兼捕鯨使를 任하고) and appointed Baek Chun-bae as his assistant (白春培로 從事官을 임하야). They were given the task of settling the island (該島開拓事務를 辦理케하였더니), but because of the “Gapshin Coup” the following year (翌年 甲申의 變을 因하야), they could not achieve much (泰效치못하였고).

Afterwards, in 1888 (其後戊子年에), island resident Seo Gyeong-su was appointed Wolsong the illegal harvesting of the island’s forest by foreigners. (該島人民을 繁殖하고 外國人의 樹木侵伐하는 弊를 防禦케 하였더니), but Seo Gyeong-su died the following year before completing the job (翌年에 徐敬秀가 身死未遂하였고).

In 1895 (開國五百四年에), the Ministry of the Interior appointed island resident Bae Gye-ju as the Island Supervisor and had him manage the island (內部에서 本島民 裵季周로 島監을 任하야 島務를 管理케하였더니). In the spring of the same year, Bae Gye-ju reported to the Ministry of the Interior that Japanese had recently been arriving in large numbers and were cutting down trees, encroaching on residents, and causing disturbances (本年春에 裵季周가 內部에 來報하되 近者에 日本人이 夥數流入하야 樹木을 斫伐하고 居民을 侵擾하니), and requested that the government establish law and order, which prompted the Interior Ministry to request Sir John McLeavy Brown, chief commissioner of the Korean Customs Service, to dispatch one Westerner to the island to investigate the situation there (政府에서 設法防護하기를 請함의 內部에서 海關總稅務士 柏卓安에게 委託하야 西人一員을 派送하야 該島情形을 査報케 하였더니). A summary of the report follows (其報告의 槪況이 如左하니):

Ulleungdo is about 200 ri from land (鬱陵島는 距陸二百餘里오). It has an area estimated to be about 75 square ri (面積은 約計 七十五方里니). The entire island has little cultivated land (遍嶋中에 耕植하는 地는 不多하고), and there was a thick forest of trees from the seashore to the mountain ridges (樹木이 海濱으로 從하야 山嶺까지 鬱密하였는되). The height of the mountain is calculated to be 4,000 English feet (山高는 計有四千英尺이오). The depth of the water within three ri of the shore is between 6,000 and 9,600 English feet (距岸三里內의 水深은 自六千至九千六百英尺이라)

There are about 300 men and women on the island, (居民은 男女 約 三百口이니). Over the past couple of decades (數十年來로), shipbuilders and merchants and fishermen and farmers have gradually come to live together on the island. (漸次 船匠商客과 漁人耕夫가 相隨而至하야 居生하는되). Since the water is extremely deep, it is said that fishing is unprofitable, but annual shipments of seaweed reach as much as 2,000 dam (海水가 太深하야 魚産은 未益하고다만 海菜의 運出이 每年에 二千 擔에 多至하고).

The land is fertile, so fertilization with night soil is unnecessary (土質은 膏沃하야 糞漑 를 要치아니하고), but wood ash is plowed into the fields to achieve higher yields (樹叢燼灰로 覆耕하야 一年兩熟을 得하니). Barley and wheat are planted in the spring (春季에는 大小麥이오), and potatoes and beans in the fall (秋季에는 薯와 豆인 되). Last year’s harvest was 20,000 po of potatoes, 20,000 po of barley, 10,000 po of yellow beans, and 5,000 po of wheat (上年所穫이 薯 二萬包, 大麥 二萬包, 黃豆一萬包, 小麥五千包이오). The incline of the land is too steep to grow rice (地勢가 太斜하야 禾穀은 耕作지 못 하고). There are many wood products, including old, large Japanese cedar and a variety of rare, valuable trees (材木은 老年巨杉과 各種貴重寶木이 亦多하고). There are zelkova, juniper, pine nut, and gamtang (槻木 香木 柏子木 甘湯木이 産有하어라). Trade with the mainland is extremely rare, but they occasionally get a shipment of a few po of foodstuff, tobacco, and cotton cloth (大陸과 通商이 極少한 되 往往히 商簇의 輸入하는 物資는 食物烟草布疋 等數包 等이오.) The goods they ship out is mainly seaweed, but also lumber, and occasional clothes (其 載出하는 物品은 海菜가 居多하고 板木 間或 裝 運하더라).

9:45 PM
Gerry Bevers said...
I have already noticed a few mistakes. For example, here is a corrected version of one of the paragraphs:

Afterwards, in 1888 (其後戊子年에), island resident Seo Gyeong-su was appointed Wolsong Commander and given the duty of increasing the island’s population and preventing the illegal harvesting of the island’s forest by foreigners. (該島人民을 繁殖하고 外國人의 樹木侵伐하는 弊를 防禦케 하였더니), but Seo Gyeong-su died the following year before completing the job (翌年에 徐敬秀가 身死未遂하였고).

9:55 PM
Anonymous said...
本年九月에 内部에서 右項報告을 等因하야 外部에 照會하였더니 外部에서 駐京日本公使에게 照會하야 該嶋에 潜越한 日本人을 訂期刷還하고 不○○○○○○○買賣함을 禁○케하라하였더라





chaamiey

10:23 PM
Anonymous said...
About 甘湯木

甘湯木=감탕나무= 黐の木(モチノキ)=Possumhaw





chaamiey

10:49 PM
Gerry Bevers said...
chaamiey,

I found THIS WEB PAGE that refers to 감탕나무 as "Integra Holly," with the scientific name of "llex integra Thunberg."

11:05 PM
Anonymous said...
I see,I should withdraw "Possumhaw".


Good night,Mr.Bevers,praising your good works.




chaamiey

11:35 PM
dokdo-takeshima.com said...
Gerry, this island can't be Ulleungdo.

It says the island was 200ri from Korea. That is only 80kms, we all know that Ulleungdo is about 130kms away.

1:11 AM
matsu said...
Dear every one,

I am also very happy to join in this work.


chaamiey,

I wonder how you could read the last part!
It’s great!


Gerry,

Thank you again and I also praise your works.
Your English translation is so clear and very easy to understand.

1:21 AM
Anonymous said...
matsuさん、

ここの画像とあなたの判読を手がかりに推定を加えたものです。「該嶋」などははっきりと見えているわけではありません。



chaamiey

6:47 AM
Gerry Bevers said...
Thank you, Chaamiey and Matsu. I did the best I could, but there may still be mistakes in it since I did not completely understand a few of the expressions. Nevertheless, I think I got the gist of the article pretty well.

I have not really had time to study the last part of the article, but the following sentence looks interesting:

嶋邊海狗峯石壁亂叢中에一小灣이有하니 約闊一百 英尺이라 該灣으로 日本船商의 輸入品은 米 塩甕○ 日本酒 洋布 木綿 火油 火柴 雨傘等件인되

I wonder where 海狗峯 (Sea Lion Peak) was. That is a new and interesting placename for me. I am wondering if that was possibly referring to "Seal Point" at the southern tip of the island? Actually, I have not really paid attention to the names of the peaks on the island, so maybe I need to go back and check Lee Gyu-won's 鬱陵島內圖.

Steve (dokdo-takeshima),

La Porte used "English" feet for measurement, so the 200 ri was most probably kilometers. And since he said the distance was from "the land to the island," we do not know exactly where he was measuring from, but he may have been measuring from Busan since that was where he was stationed at.

Also, the island being talked about was definitely Ulleungdo since the title of the article was "Ulleungdo Situation" (鬱陵島 事況).

7:32 AM
matsu said...
chaamieyさん、

でもやはり、あのかすれた印刷から、良く読まれたと思います。

広尾の都立中央図書館に『皇城新聞』の復刻版があったと思いますので、時間があったら見てきます。
しかし、Toronさんの取り出したコピーも、もともとこの復刻版のものだったかも知れませんね。


Kaneganeseさん、

せっかく良い史料を見つけても、いつも紙のコピーをとるだけに終わってしまっているのですが、図書館などから電子的データでもらうことが出来るんでしょうか?



Gerry,

In李奎遠's report『鬱陵島検察日記 啓本草』1882,
Japanese stayed 道洞(Do-dong) and southern port南浦槻谷.

南浦槻谷(南浦) is長斫之浦口.
渠等所謂南浦者 卽南邊長斫之浦口也
So, it is 沙洞(Sa-dong)today.

I wonder this has some relation with the southern port near the sea lion rock.

You can see the text『鬱陵島検察日記 啓本草』 in Toron’s site.


11:58 AM
Kaneganese said...
Matsuさん

"せっかく良い史料を見つけても、いつも紙のコピーをとるだけに終わってしまっているのですが、図書館などから電子的データでもらうことが出来るんでしょうか?"

良い資料ですか...もったいない。図書館によってはそういったサービスもあるようですね。国会図書館は無いように思います。そう言えば、田中氏はどうやって撮影しているんでしょうね?私はいつも紙で複写したものを自宅のスキャナでデータ化しています。一番安上がりなので。ちなみに、Histoire de L'eglise de Coreeと鶏林事略、複写してきたので、そのうち投稿します。

7:59 PM
Gerry Bevers said...
Matsu,

Below is a link to a 1908 Japanese map of Ulleungdo, on which you can see "Seal Pt." (Seal Point) on the southern tip of Ulleungdo, which is written as 間嶺末 in Chinese characters. Near that point are 間嶺, 通龜尾, and 新里. Anyway, at point, there is a peak with an elevation of 646 (meters), which I am thinking was probably "Seal Peak" since it was right at "Seal Point."

Since LaPorte was a Westerner, he would have probably referred to Western maps, which marked "Seal Point." Therefore, I am thinking that he referred to that peak as "Seal Peak" in his report, which the Koreans then translated as "海狗峯."

By the way, 海狗 means "seal," not "sea lion." I mistranslated it earlier.

Here is the link to the 1908 map:


9:54 AM
Kaneganese said...
matsuさん,

都立中央図書館は18日まで改装のため休館のようです。

As for La Porte, I found interesting sentence when I was reading Prof. Shin Yong-ha's book today. He wrote;

"大韓帝国内部(内務省)は官制を改正し、鬱陵島を独立した郡に昇格させたとき、禹用鼎の報告書と共に、釜山税関の税務士(税理士)として働いていたフランス人ラポルテの報告書も参考にした。(《名部請議書存案》第十七冊、光武四年十月二十二日条参照。) 彼はフランス人であったため、西洋人が製作した韓国地図をよく見ていただろうから、于山島=独島を西洋人がリアンクル岩石と呼んでいたことも知っていたと思う。この点を考慮すると、大韓帝国政府が于山島=独島を1900年に"石島"と表記した理由を彼はよく理解したに違いない。

When Imperial Korean Ministry of Internal Affair restructed beurocratic system and promoted Ulleundo to a independant county, they referred the report of La Porte's, French custom officer who were working for the custom office in Pusan, along with 禹用鼎's report(refer to 《名部請議書存案》第十七冊、光武四年十月二十二日条). Since he is a french, he must had seen Korean maps made by westerners very well. So he must had known that westernes called 于山島=独島 as Liancourt Rocks. Considering those points, He must have understood well the reason why the government of Imeperial Korean defined 于山島=独島 as "石島" in 1900."

I don't know anything about 《名部請議書存案》第十七冊、光武四年十月二十二日条, but it seems La Porte's report did had great influence on "石島". Besides, as I posted today, French knew Usan is Jukdo, not Takeshima/Dokdo, Prof. Shin's sentence has completely different meaning.

5:05 PM
matsu said...
kaneganeseさん chaamieyさん

そうです。
なんと、きょう、都立中央図書館に行ってしまいました。
はい。半月ほど工事休館中でした。

「皇城新聞」は、国会図書館にも所蔵がありますが、これまた、なんと関西館にあるそうです。はい。

しかし、いずれも「復刻版」であり、また、昔の新聞の現物がおいそれとは残っていないと思いますので、最後の部分の印刷のかすれていないものを探すのは難しいかもしれませんね。




Gerry,

I understand what you said.

I respect your smart way to define place names according to maps and documents.




For every one,

About 『大韓地誌』Daehanjiji

Recently, a Shimane Prefecture’s site wrote that『大韓地誌』has three (or four) versions.




(Sorry in Japanese)
・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・
質問:大韓地誌には、(1)大韓帝国の領域(緯度/経度/東限)(2)朝鮮半島全体図(大韓全図)(3)各道説明(江原道/慶尚道)があるようである。(1)(2)はよく目にするが(3)は見たことがない。韓国側が記述を出していないところを見ると、韓国側に不利な内容になっていると想像するが、どうか。また、大韓地誌には、1899年、1901年、1905年、1906年版があるようだ。それぞれの版で(1)(2)(3)がどのような記載になっているのか。

回答 大韓地誌は、250ページほどの本で、第一篇総論(第一課位置幅員海岸、第二課地勢地質、第三課気候物産など)に続き、第二篇京畿道、第三篇忠清北道、以下各道の説明で構成されています。第十二篇が江原道で、その第三課海湾島嶼に鬱陵島に関する記述があります。また、巻頭に「光武三年十二月十五日学部編輯局刊行 大韓全図」があり(四つ折にした紙が貼り付けてある)、第二篇以下各道の記事の前にその道の地図が(これも折込みの形で)貼り付けられています。
 Web竹島問題研究所では、(A)「光武五年五月 廣文社新刊」という標題紙のある本(光武5年は西暦1901年)、(B)「光武九年七月 博文社」という奥付のある本、(C)「光武十年丙午後四月」の跋のある本を見ております。このほか、(D)景仁文化社「韓国地理風俗誌叢書」Vol.30にCと同じ跋文のある本が影印版で収録されています。
 A、B、Cの各本は全体のページ数も異なり、例えば漢城(ソウル)の説明部分でBに「鉄路停車場」に関する記述が加わるなど内容も同一ではありません。しかし、鬱陵島に関する記述は、ABCDともに同一です。鬱陵島と于山の描かれた大韓全図、江原道の地図、慶尚北道の地図も(本によって脱落があるものもありますが)確認しえた範囲では同一です。 第十二篇江原道第三課の鬱陵島鬱陵島に関する記述は、次のとおりです。「沿岸に松島、沙島、無路島、猪島、竹島などの群島が羅列しているが、皆、渺少な(小さい)沙磧地である。獨(ひとり)欝陵島は東の海にあるやや大きい島で、島の中央に在る一峯を中峯と名づける。樹林が鬱蒼としていて、規木や香木等が有名である。」(原文は漢諺交)
 この記述に于山島のことが出ていないことは、ご推察のとおりです。韓国の独島博物館の大韓地理の解説文ではこの記述について、「島嶼の説明には概略的表現で鬱陵島についての説明だけをしている」としています。http://www.dokdomuseum.go.kr/exh/exh_detail.html?dulevel=10&idx=30しかし、第一篇総論の大韓国の位置(東限)についての記述、および、巻頭の学部(大韓国文部省)刊の大韓全図や本書江原道、慶尚北道の地図の「于山」が鬱陵島近傍の竹嶼であることから判断して、上記江原道の鬱陵島に関する記述は、たんに概略的な説明だから"独島"(竹島)に言及しなかったということではなく、韓国において1900年当時、竹島についての認識がなかったことを示しているといえるでしょう。
 なお、Web竹島問題研究所では、ご指摘の1899年の版を確認しておりません。大韓地誌には著者玄采による光武3年(1899年)12月25日付けの「大韓地誌跋」があるので、あるいはこの跋文をもって1899年の本とされるのかもしれません。当サイトの読者からの情報を期待します。(事務局:総務課)
・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・

So, there are three (or four) versions of『大韓地誌』.

(A)「光武五年五月 廣文社新刊」(1901 May)
(B)「光武九年七月 博文社」( 1905 July)
(C)「光武十年丙午後四月」(1906 April)
(D)景仁文化社「韓国地理風俗誌叢書」Vol.30・・・ Same as (C)


Today, at 「日韓文化交流基金図書センター」in Tokyo, I could see (D)景仁文化社「韓国地理風俗誌叢書」Vol.30 .

And I also confirmed that in 『大韓地誌』written by 玄采, there is only this description about Ulleungdo.


「欝陵島は東の海にあるやや大きい島で、島の中央に在る一峯を中峯と名づける。樹林が鬱蒼としていて、規木や香木等が有名である。」

“Ulleungdo is a rather big island located in the eastern sea. There is a mountain peak at the center of the island called 中峯(Central Peak). There are many trees in the island and famous for 規木and 香木.”


Moreover, the writer of this site suspects it might be misunderstood that this book was published in 1899, as the author (玄采) wrote
跋文 dated December 25 of 1899.

So, there might be no published 玄采’s『大韓地誌』until the date of May 1901.


This means, the article of 「皇城新聞」here, quoted either another book called 『大韓地誌』 written by not 玄采 but by another person, or “大韓地誌曰” only meant 大韓の地誌に曰く “according to a geography book in Korea” or “according to some geography books in Korea”.

6:40 PM
Gerry Bevers said...
Matsu,

From what I understand, the 跋文written in December 25, 1899 (光武三年十二月二十五日白堂玄采跋) is from the 1900 version, not the 1899 version. Supposedly, there is an 1899 version, too.

I am at school right now grading quizzes, so I cannot write much.

Take care.

7:24 PM
Gerry Bevers said...
Below is my translation of the article. I hope people will check it for mistakes.

By the way, when I translated 嶋邊海狗峯石壁亂叢中에, I got the feeling that 海狗峯 was not a particle place, but was a description of a particle kind of rock formation that seals had traditionally occupied.

If anyone disagrees with my translation or would like to make any suggestions on improving it, please let me know.

Here is the translation:
      • --------------

Special Report (別報)

Ulleungdo Situation (鬱陵島 事況)

There is an island in the sea east of Uljin called Ulleung (蔚珍之東海에 一島가 有하니 曰鬱陵). Among its six, small neighboring islands (其附屬한 小六島中에) the most prominent one (最著者는) is Usando/Jukdo (于山島竹島이니). According to the Daehanjiji (大韓地誌에 曰), Ulleungdo is the old country of Usan (鬱陵島는 古于山國이라). It has an area of 100 ri (地方이 百里오) and three peaks that stand out (三峰이 律兀한되).

Its products are (所産은) siho (柴胡 – bupleurum root), gobon (藁本 Ligusticum sinense Oliv. root), seoknam (石楠 – Photinia serrulata Lindl), juniper (香木), zelkova (槻木), and nojuk (蘆竹 - a reed-like bamboo). The land is suitable for barley (土性은 宜麥하고). In the past (古에), there were water animals that looked like cows without horns that were called “gaji” (牛形無角한 水獸가 有하니 名曰可之오). There are also seabirds that are called "gwakjo" (海鳥가 有하니 名曰 霍鳥러라).

There are few people on the island (島中에 人烟이 稀少하야), so the government exempts them from paying tax (國家에서 公稅를 免徵하고). Every three years (每式年에) the authority in the neighboring region (附近地方官으로) selects and sends an emissary (差使員을 定送하야) to inspect the situation on the island (島中情形도 査察하고) and bring back juniper and nojuk to present to the king (香木과 蘆竹을 御貢할 뿐이러니).

In 1883 (癸未年에), the royal court (朝廷에서) appointed Kim Ok-gyun as the Southeast Islands Development & Whaling Official (金玉均으로 東南諸島開拓史兼捕鯨使를 任하고) and appointed Baek Chun-bae as his assistant (白春培로 從事官을 임하야). They were given the task of settling the island (該島開拓事務를 辦理케하였더니), but because of the “Gapshin Coup” the following year (翌年 甲申의 變을 因하야), they could not achieve much (泰效치못하였고).

Afterwards, in 1888 (其後戊子年에), island resident Seo Gyeong-su was appointed Wolsong Commander and given the duty of increasing the island’s population and preventing the illegal harvesting of the island’s forest by foreigners. (該島人民을 繁殖하고 外國人의 樹木侵伐하는 弊를 防禦케 하였더니), but Seo Gyeong-su died the following year before completing the job (翌年에 徐敬秀가 身死未遂하였고).

In 1895 (開國五百四年에), the Ministry of the Interior appointed island resident Bae Gye-ju as the Island Supervisor and had him manage the island (內部에서 本島民 裵季周로 島監을 任하야 島務를 管理케하였더니). In the spring of the same year, Bae Gye-ju reported to the Ministry of the Interior that Japanese had recently been arriving in large numbers and were cutting down trees, encroaching on residents, and causing disturbances (本年春에 裵季周가 內部에 來報하되 近者에 日本人이 夥數流入하야 樹木을 斫伐하고 居民을 侵擾하니), and requested that the government establish law and order, which prompted the Interior Ministry to request Sir John McLeavy Brown, chief commissioner of the Korean Customs Service, to dispatch one Westerner to the island to investigate the situation there (政府에서 設法防護하기를 請함의 內部에서 海關總稅務士 柏卓安에게 委託하야 西人一員을 派送하야 該島情形을 査報케 하였더니). A summary of the report follows (其報告의 槪況이 如左하니):

Ulleungdo is about 200 ri from land (鬱陵島는 距陸二百餘里오). It has an area estimated to be about 75 square ri (面積은 約計 七十五方里니). The entire island has little cultivated land (遍嶋中에 耕植하는 地는 不多하고), and there was a thick forest of trees from the seashore to the mountain ridges (樹木이 海濱으로 從하야 山嶺까지 鬱密하였는되). The height of the mountain is calculated to be 4,000 English feet (山高는 計有四千英尺이오). The depth of the water within three ri of the shore is between 6,000 and 9,600 English feet (距岸三里內의 水深은 自六千至九千六百英尺이라)

There are about 300 men and women on the island, (居民은 男女 約 三百口이니). Over the past couple of decades (數十年來로), shipbuilders and merchants and fishermen and farmers have gradually come to live together on the island. (漸次 船匠商客과 漁人耕夫가 相隨而至하야 居生하는되). Since the water is extremely deep, it is said that fishing is unprofitable, but annual shipments of seaweed reach as much as 2,000 dam (海水가 太深하야 魚産은 未益하고다만 海菜의 運出이 每年에 二千 擔에 多至하고).

The land is fertile, so fertilization with night soil is unnecessary (土質은 膏沃하야 糞漑 를 要치아니하고), but wood ash is plowed into the fields to achieve higher yields (樹叢燼灰로 覆耕하야 一年兩熟을 得하니). Barley and wheat are planted in the spring (春季에는 大小麥이오), and potatoes and beans in the fall (秋季에는 薯와 豆인 되). Last year’s harvest was 20,000 po of potatoes, 20,000 po of barley, 10,000 po of yellow beans, and 5,000 po of wheat (上年所穫이 薯 二萬包, 大麥 二萬包, 黃豆一萬包, 小麥五千包이오). The incline of the land is too steep to grow rice (地勢가 太斜하야 禾穀은 耕作지 못 하고). There are many wood products, including old, large Japanese cedar and a variety of rare, valuable trees (材木은 老年巨杉과 各種貴重寶木이 亦多하고). There are zelkova, juniper, pine nut, and Integra holly (槻木 香木 柏子木 甘湯木이 産有하어라). Trade with the mainland is extremely rare, but they occasionally get a shipment of a few po of foodstuff, tobacco, and cotton cloth (大陸과 通商이 極少한 되 往往히 商簇의 輸入하는 物資는 食物烟草布疋 等數包 等이오.) The goods they ship out is mainly seaweed, but also lumber, and occasionally clothes (其 載出하는 物品은 海菜가 居多하고 板木 間或 裝 運하더라).

Among the confusion of seal peaks and rock cliffs along the coast (嶋邊海狗峯石壁亂叢中에), there is a small inlet about 100 English feet wide (一小灣이有하니 約闊一百 英尺이라), where Japanese ships loaded with such imports as rice, salt, pottery, *, Japanese wine, wool, cotton cloth, kerosene, matches, and umbrellas trade with the locals using the barter method (該灣으로 日本船商의 輸入品은 米 塩甕○ 日本酒 洋布 木綿 火油 火柴 雨傘等件인되 土民으로더부러 交易하는 法은 物로物을易하고). Besides beans and barley, the exported goods include wood that is cut indiscriminately from all over the mountain and is loaded onto ships that carry it away without paying for it (其輸出品은 豆麥外에 満山材木을 亂斫鋸削하야 船隻에 載往하는者 其値가 不賣하고).

There are places on the island where about 200 Japanese have schemed to get houses and are living in communities (本嶋中에 策室旅居하는 日本人이 二百餘名인되). They encroach on the locals and have inappropriate relations (土民

  • 最終更新:2009-08-22 15:51:31

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