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OccidentalismDuc, sequere, aut de via decede!HomeArchivesHall of Shame화병 FAQTagsTemporary DatabaseLies, Half-truths, & Dokdo Video, Part 4
September 21st, 2006 . by Gerry-Bevers
1794 Ulleungdo Inspection: Gajido (가지도) and more dead sea lions

The following is the report of a 1794 Korean inspection of Ulleungdo and my analysis of it. The report is significant because it refers to an island named Gajido (可支島), which Koreans claim was a reference to present-day “Dokdo” (Liancourt Rocks). However, there is little or no basis for such a claim since the report mentioned no coordinates for Gajido (可支島), no bearing, distance, or description. Also, there are no other references to the island in Korean historical documents. In fact, there is no solid evidence in any Korean document or on any Korean map before 1905 that would support the claim that Koreans even knew about “Dokdo” (Liancourt Rocks). So why do Koreans claim that Gajido was a reference to “Dokdo”? Well, they base their claim solely on the fact that sea lions lived on both Gajido (可支島) and on “Dokdo” (Liancourt Rocks). In fact, the name, Gajido (可支島), means “Seal Island.” The problem with that logic, however, is that it ignores the fact that sea lions or seals also lived on Ulleungdo.

In my analysis of the 1794 report, I will try to show that Gajido was not a reference to ”Dokdo,” but was simply a reference to a place, rock, or island on or around Ulleungdo. In fact, an 1886 inspection of Ulleungdo, which you can read about here, said that sea lions or seals were hunted on Ulleungdo. That report, in itself, pours cold water on Korea’s “Gajido-was-Dokdo” claim, but the 1894 report below will pour even more.

An 1882 map of Ulleungdo shows a cave on the west coast of the island named “Seal Cave” (可支窟), You can see the 1882 map here. Moveover, on modern maps of Ulleungdo, there is a cave on the west coast of Ulleungdo located at about the same location as the cave shown on the 1882 map. The cave on modern maps, however, is called Gajaet-gul (가잿굴), which appears to mean “Crawfish Cave.” You can see it on this modern map of Ulleungdo.

I think Gajaet-gul (가잿굴) was originally Gaje-gul, which would mean ”Seal Cave.” The “t” sound in the word “gajaet-gul” is added to connect the word “gajae” (crawfish) to the word “gul” (cave).

Gaji-eo (可支魚) was the Chinese-character-based word for ”sea lions” or “seals” in old Korean documents, but the pure Korean word for sea lions that is used today is “gangchi” (강치). In the Ulleungdo dialect, however, “gangchi” (강치) is pronounced as “gaje” (가제), which is very similar in sound to gajae (가재), which means “crawfish.” I think the cave labeled as gajaet-gul (가잿굴) on modern maps of Ulleungdo was originally pronounced as gaje-gul (가제굴). I base my claim on the fact that marine product lists from Ulleungdo never listed “crawfish” (가재) but did list “sea lions” (可支魚). You can see sea lions listed as a product of Ulleungdo on this 1750s Korean map of the island. Also, crawfish are freshwater animals, not saltwater.

Also, there is a rock off the southern tip of Ulleungdo called “Gajae Rock” (가재바위). You can see the rock here on this closeup map of the southern tip of Ulleungdo. Again, notice that the word “gajae” (가재), which can mean ”crawfish” in Korean, is used to name the rock. However, it makes no sense that a rock surrounded by salt water would be named “Crawfish Rock” since crawfish are freshwater animals. It is much more likely that “gajae” (가재) was referring to sea lions since the Ulleungdo pronunciation for sea lion is “gaje” (가제), which is only a slight difference in pronunciation. By the way, I am very suspicious of why Koreans chose to use “gajae” to name these places instead “of gaje.”

Anyway, I think Gajae Rock (가재바위) could have been what the 1794 Korean report referred to as “Gajido” (可支島). I base my claim not only on the fact that the name of the rock sounds almost exactly like the Ulleungdo pronunciation for “sea lion,” but also on the fact that this 1863 British map of Ulleungdo labels that southern tip of the island as “Seal Pt.” (Seal Point).

Of course, Gajido (可支島) could have also been referring to a rock on the west coast of Ulleungdo in front of or near “Seal Cave,” especially since there is a rock in that area called “Saja Bawui” (사자바위), which means “Lion Rock.” You can see the rock on this modern map of Ulleungdo. It is possible that “Lion Rock” may have been a reference to “seal lions” since Koreans also use the word “bada saja” (바다사자) to refer to sea lions. ”Bada saja” literally means “sea lion.”

Here is the Chinese-character based 1794 report, a Korean translation, and my translation:

○江原道觀察使沈晋賢狀啓言:
鬱陵島搜討, 間二年, 使邊將輪回擧行, 已有定式, 故搜討官越松萬戶韓昌國處, 發關分付矣。 該萬戶牒呈: “四月二十一日, 幸得順風, 糧饌雜物分, 載四隻船, 與倭學李福祥及上下員役、格軍八十名, 同日未時量, 到于大洋中, 則酉時, 北風猝起, 雲霧四塞, 驟雨霹靂, 一時齊發, 四船各自分散, 莫知所向。 萬戶收拾精神, 戎服禱海, 多散糧米, 以餽海神後, 使格軍輩, 擧火應之, 則二隻船擧火而應, 一隻船漠然無火矣。 二十二日寅時, 怒濤漸息, 只見遠海之中, 二隻船帆自南而來。 格軍輩擧手指東曰: ‘彼雲霧中隱隱如雲者, 疑是島中上峰也。’ 萬戶詳細遠望, 則果是島形也。 親自擊皷, 激勵格軍, 卽爲到泊於島之西面黃土丘尾津。 登山看審, 則自谷至中峰三十餘里, 而山形重疊, 谷水成川, 其中有可作水田六十餘石下種之地。 谷則狹窄, 有瀑布, 而左爲黃土丘尾窟, 右爲屛風石。 其上又有香木亭, 故斫取香木, 而以間年斫取之故, 漸就稀少。 二十四日到桶丘尾津, 則谷形如桶, 前有一巖在海中, 與島相距可爲五十步, 而高近數十丈, 周回皆是絶壁。 谷口巖石層層, 僅僅攀登而見之, 則山高谷深, 樹木參天, 雜草茂密, 通涉無路。 二十五日到長作地浦, 谷口果有竹田, 非但稀踈, 擧皆體小。 其中擇其稍大者斫取後, 仍向東南楮田洞, 則自洞口至中峰爲數十里許, 而洞裏廣闊基址, 顯有三處, 可作水田數十石下種之地。 前有三島, 在北曰防牌島, 在中曰竹島, 在東曰瓮島。 三島相距, 不過百餘步, 島之周回, 各爲數十把, 險巖嵂屼, 難以登覽, 仍爲止宿。 二十六日轉向可支島, 四五箇可支魚, 驚駭躍出, 形若水牛。 砲手齊放, 捉得二首, 而丘尾津山形, 最爲奇異, 入谷數里, 則昔日人家遺址, 宛然尙存。 左右山谷, 甚爲幽深, 難於登陟。 仍遍看竹巖、帿布巖、孔巖、錐山等諸處, 行到桶丘尾, 禱山祭海, 待風留住。 蓋島周回, 摠爲論之, 則南北七八十里許, 東西五六十里許。 環海則皆是層巖絶壁, 四方山谷, 則間有昔日人居之土址, 而田土可墾處, 合爲數百石下種之地。 樹木則香、栢、蘗、檜、桑、榛, 雜草則靑芹、葵、艾、苧、楮。 其餘異樹奇草, 不知名, 難以盡記。 羽蟲則雁、鷹、鷗、鷺, 毛蟲則貓、鼠, 海産則藿、鰒而已。 三十日發船, 初八日還鎭。 島中所産可支魚皮二令、篁竹三箇、紫檀香二吐莫、石間朱五升、圖形一本, 監封上使” 云。 幷上送于備邊司。


강원도 관찰사 심진현(沈晉賢)이 장계하였다.
“울릉도의 수토(搜討)를 2년에 한 번씩 변장(邊將)으로 하여금 돌아가며 거행하기로 이미 정식(定式)을 삼고 있기 때문에, 수토관 월송 만호(越松萬戶) 한창국(韓昌國)에게 관문을 띄워 분부하였습니다. 월송 만호의 첩정(牒呈)에 ‘4월 21일 다행히도 순풍을 얻어서 식량과 반찬거리를 4척의 배에 나누어 싣고 왜학(倭學) 이복상(李福祥) 및 상하 원역(員役)과 격군(格軍) 80명을 거느리고 같은 날 미시(未時)쯤에 출선하여 바다 한가운데에 이르렀는데, 유시(酉時)에 갑자기 북풍이 일며 안개가 사방에 자욱하게 끼고, 우뢰와 함께 장대비가 쏟아졌습니다. 일시에 출발한 4척의 배가 뿔뿔이 흩어져서 어디로 가고 있는지 알 수 없었는데, 만호가 정신을 차려 군복을 입고 바다에 기원한 다음 많은 식량을 물에 뿌려 해신(海神)을 먹인 뒤에 격군들을 시켜 횃불을 들어 호응케 했더니, 두 척의 배는 횃불을 들어서 대답하고 한 척의 배는 불빛이 전혀 보이지 않았습니다. 22일 인시(寅時)에 거센 파도가 점차 가라앉으면서 바다 멀리서 두 척의 배 돛이 남쪽에 오고 있는 것만을 바라보고 있던 참에 격군들이 동쪽을 가리키며 ‘저기 안개 속으로 은은히 구름처럼 보이는 것이 아마 섬 안의 높은 산봉우리일 것이다.’ 하기에, 만호가 자세히 바라보니 과연 그것은 섬의 형태였습니다. 직접 북을 치며 격군을 격려하여 곧장 섬의 서쪽 황토구미진(黃土丘尾津)에 정박하여 산으로 올라가서 살펴보니, 계곡에서 중봉(中峰)까지의 30여 리에는 산세가 중첩되면서 계곡의 물이 내를 이루고 있었는데, 그 안에는 논 60여 섬지기의 땅이 있고, 골짜기는 아주 좁고 폭포가 있었습니다. 그 왼편은 황토구미굴(黃土丘尾窟)이 있고 오른편은 병풍석(屛風石)이 있으며 또 그 위에는 향목정(香木亭)이 있는데, 예전에 한 해 걸러씩 향나무를 베어 갔던 까닭에 향나무가 점차 듬성듬성해지고 있습니다.
24일에 통구미진(桶丘尾津)에 도착하니 계곡의 모양새가 마치 나무통과 같고 그 앞에 바위가 하나 있는데, 바닷속에 있는 그 바위는 섬과의 거리가 50보(步)쯤 되고 높이가 수십 길이나 되며, 주위는 사면이 모두 절벽이었습니다. 계곡 어귀에는 암석이 층층이 쌓여 있는데, 근근이 기어올라가 보니 산은 높고 골은 깊은데다 수목은 하늘에 맞닿아 있고 잡초는 무성하여 길을 헤치고 나갈 수가 없었습니다.
25일에 장작지포(長作地浦)의 계곡 어귀에 도착해보니 과연 대밭이 있는데, 대나무가 듬성듬성할 뿐만 아니라 거의가 작달막하였습니다. 그중에서 조금 큰 것들만 베어낸 뒤에, 이어 동남쪽 저전동(楮田洞)으로 가보니 골짜기 어귀에서 중봉에 이르기까지 수십 리 사이에 세 곳의 널찍한 터전이 있어 수십 섬지기의 땅이었습니다. 또 그 앞에 세 개의 섬이 있는데, 북쪽의 것은 방패도(防牌島), 가운데의 것은 죽도(竹島), 동쪽의 것은 옹도(瓮島)이며, 세 섬 사이의 거리는 1백여 보(步)에 불과하고 섬의 둘레는 각각 수십 파(把)씩 되는데, 험한 바위들이 하도 쭈뼛쭈뼛하여 올라가 보기가 어려웠습니다.
거기서 자고 26일에 가지도(可支島)로 가니, 네댓 마리의 가지어(可支魚)가 놀라서 뛰쳐나오는데, 모양은 수소와 같았고, 포수들이 일제히 포를 쏘아 두 마리를 잡았습니다. 그리고 구미진(丘尾津)의 산세가 가장 기이한데, 계곡으로 십여 리를 들어가니 옛날 인가의 터전이 여태까지 완연히 남아 있고, 좌우의 산곡이 매우 깊숙하여 올라가기는 어려웠습니다. 이어 죽암(竹巖)•후포암(帿布巖)•공암(孔巖)•추산(錐山) 등의 여러 곳을 둘려보고 나서 통구미(桶丘尾)로 가서 산과 바다에 고사를 지낸 다음, 바람이 가라앉기를 기다려 머무르고 있었습니다.
대저 섬의 둘레를 총괄하여 논한다면 남북이 70, 80리 남짓에 동서가 50, 60리 남짓하고 사면이 모두 층암 절벽이며, 사방의 산곡에 이따금씩 옛날 사람이 살던 집터가 있고 전지로 개간할 만한 곳은 도합 수백 섬지기쯤 되었으며, 수목으로는 향나무•잣나무•황벽나무•노송나무•뽕나무•개암나무, 잡초로는 미나리•아욱•쑥•모시풀•닥나무가 주종을 이루고, 그 밖에도 이상한 나무들과 풀은 이름을 몰라서 다 기록하기 어려웠습니다. 우충(羽虫)으로는 기러기•매•갈매기•백로가 있고, 모충(毛虫)으로는 고양이•쥐가 있으며, 해산물로는 미역과 전복뿐이었습니다.
30일에 배를 타고 출발하여 새달 8일에 본진으로 돌아왔습니다. 섬 안의 산물인 가지어 가죽 2벌, 황죽(篁竹) 3개, 자단향(紫檀香) 2토막, 석간주(石間朱) 5되, 도형(圖形) 1벌을 감봉(監封)하여 올립니다.’ 하였으므로, 함께 비변사로 올려보냅니다.


Gangwondo Governor Sim jin-hyeon reported to the king.

I sent a order to Wolsong Commander Inspector Han Chang-sik to inspect Ulleungdo. These inspections are officially held every year and are rotated between the two frontier commanders.

The Wolsong commander reported, “On April 21st, we got a favorable wind and divided and loaded provisions, including foodstuff, on four ships and set sail between 1 and 3 p.m. with Japanese Expert Lee Bok-sang, various ranks of civil servants, and eighty sailors.”

“In the middle of the sea at between 5 and 7 p.m., we got a sudden wind from the north and heavy fog in all directions. We got thunder and heavy rain. All four of our ships were scattered, and we lost sight of each other. The commander regained his wits, put on his military uniform, prayed to the sea god, and scattered food in the water to feed him. Then he ordered the sailors to hold up torches and call out to the other ships. Two ships held up torches and answered the call, but there was no sign of firelight from one ship.”

“Between 3 and 5 a.m. on the 22nd, the violent waves gradually lessened, and we could see in the distance the sails of two ships coming south. Then the sailors pointed to the east and said, “That thing over there in the fog that looks like a threatening cloud is probably the island’s highest peak.” When the commander looked carefully, it was the shape of an island.”

“The commander, himself, beat the drum and urged the sailors on. We soon anchored at the Hwangto-gumi Landing (黃土丘尾津) and went up the mountain to look around. It was about thirty ri from the valley to the central peak over a series of overlapping ridges. The waters from the valley came together to form a stream, and inside (the valley) was about 60-seomjigi of rice-paddy land. The valley was narrow, and there was a waterfall. The Hwangto-gumi Cave (黃土丘尾窟) was on the left and Byeongpung Rock (屛風石) was on the right. Up above there was Hyangmok Pavilion (香木亭). The juniper trees (香木) there were scare because they had previously been cut down every other year in former times.”

“On the 24th, we arrived at Tong-gumi Landing (桶丘尾津). The valley was shaped just like a wooden barrel, and there was a rock in front about fifty paces offshore. It was tens of gil high. There were cliffs on all sides. There were mounds of rock piled up at the entrance of the valley. With difficulty we crawled up the valley, but we could not fight our way through because the peaks were high, the valleys were deep, the trees reached to the sky, and the weeds were thick.”

“On the 25th, we arrived at the valley entrance of Port Jangjakji (長斫之浦). As expected, we found a bamboo thicket, but the bamboo was not only sparse, it was also stumpy. After we cut down some of the bigger bamboo, we headed to “Southeast Jeojeondong (仍向東南楮田洞). Between the tens of ri from the valley entrance to the central peak, there were three areas wide enough for tens of seomjigi of farmland. Also, there were three islands in front. Bangpaedo (防牌島) was the northern island, Jukdo (竹島) the middle, and Ongdo (翁島) was to the east. The distance between the three islands was only about 100 paces, and the circumference of each was tens of pa (把). They looked difficult to climb because the rocks were steep and very towering.”

“We slept there and on the 26th, we changed direction (reversed course) and went to Gajido (可支島), where we surprised four or five sea lions that dashed out. They looked like water cows. Our riflemen all fired at once and got two of them. The geographical features of the beach landing (丘尾津) was the strangest thing. We went about ten ri into the valley, where we found the remains of what were clearly ancient dwellings. On both sides, the hills and ravines were so deep that they were difficult to climb up.

Next we looked around several places, including Jukam (竹巖), Hupoam (帿布巖), Gongam (孔巖), and Chusan (錐山). Then we went to Tonggumi (通邱尾) and made offerings to the mountain and sea (gods). We stayed there and waited for the wind to die down.”

“Generally speaking, the circumference of the island is seventy to eighty ri from north to south and fifty to sixty ri from east to west. All four sides are stratified rock cliffs. There are remains of ancient dwelling in various places in the valleys around the island. Land suitable for rice paddies and fields totals in the hundreds of seomjigi. Trees on the island included juniper, Korean nut pine, amur cork, old pine, mulberry, and hazel. The main species of plants are dropwort, mallow, mugwort, ramie, and paper mulberry. In addition, there are strange trees and grasses that were difficult to record because their names were unknown. Birds on the island included wild geese, hawks, seagulls, and white herons. Furry animals were cats and rats. Sea products were only brown seaweed and abalone.”

“On the 30th, we boarded our ship and set sail. On the 8th of the new month, we returned to our home base. The products from the island were two seal skins, three trunks of common Korean bamboo, two blocks of rosewood incense, five doi of red ocher, and one map, which were all packaged and sealed and given to our superiors.”

I send this together with the products (mentioned above to the bibyeonsa (備邊司).”

Four ships carrying more than eighty men left for Ulleungdo at between 1 and 3 p.m. on April 21st. They ran into fog, rain, and heavy seas, and one ship appears to have been lost. The remaining ships arrived at Hwangto-gumi Landing (黃土丘尾津) sometime on the 22nd, which is a pretty fast crossing. Hwangtogumi was a beach on the northwest corner of Ulleungdo at or near present-day Taeha Harbor. You can see Hwangto-gumi (大黃土邱尾) on the following 1882 map of the northwest corner of Ulleungdo.



The report said that it was about thirty ri from the valley entrance to the central peak of the island. It also reported that the inspection party saw a cave, a waterfall, and a rock. The rock was called Byeongpung Rock (屛風石). It also said that Hyangmok Pavilion (香木亭) was up above the area. The waterfall, the cave, and the pavillion were also mentioned in this 1786 survey report of Ulleungdo.

On the 24th, the party sailed south and arrived at the Tong-gumi Landing (桶丘尾津). You can see Tong-gumi on the following 1882 map of the southwest corner of Ulleungdo:



The report described the valley at Tong-gumi as being “wooden-barrel” shaped and as having piled mounds of stone at the entrance. Those mounds of stone may have been graves. It also said that there was a large rock fifty paces offshore. Tong-gumi is still listed on Korean maps today, and the rock that was mentioned in the 1794 report was almost certainly present-day Geobuk Bawui (거북바위), which means “Turtle Rock.” You can see a picture of Turtle Rock here.

On the 25th, the inspection party sailed around the southern-most point of the island to Port Jangjakji (長斫之浦), which can also be seen on the 1882 map shown above. Port Jangjakji was probably located near or at present-day Sadong Harbor (사동항).

From Port Jangjakji, the report said the inspection party headed to “Southeast Jeojeon-dong” (仍向東南楮田洞), which suggests that there was more than one Jeojeon-dong. Actually, the following 1750s map shows a Jeojeon-dong (苧田洞) on the northeast corner of Ulleungdo, though the character for “Jeo” is different.



The “Jeojeon” (苧田) in Jeojeon-dong (苧田洞) just means “ramie field,” so it is possible that there were more such fields on the island. In fact, on present-day maps of Ulleungdo, there is a port on the southeast corner of Ulleungdo called Jeodong Harbor (苧洞港), which is probably where “Southeast Jeojeon-dong” (東南楮田洞) was located. Afterall, it would only require dropping the “field” (田) character to make the new name.

From Southeast Jeojeon-dong, the report said it was tens of ri from the valley entrance to the central peak. The report also said that three islands could be seen from Southeast Jeojeon-dong. The northern island was Bangpaedo (防牌島), which I believe was present-day Gwaneumdo. The middle island was Jukdo (竹島), which was most likely present-day Jukdo. And the island just to the east of Southeast Jeojeon-dong was Ongdo(瓮島), which means “Pot Island.” In pure Korean, Ongdo would be pronounced as Dokseom (독섬), and in mixed Sino-Korean and pure Korea, it would be “Dokdo” (독도).

If Southeast Jeojeon-dong were present-day Jeodong Harbor, that would mean that Ongdo (Dokdo) was either present-day Chotdae-am (촛대암), which is right in front of Jeodong Harbor, or present-day Bukjeo Bawui (북저바위), which is farther out in the water. Here is a picture that shows Gwaneumdo (觀音島), Jukdo (竹島), and Bukjeo Bawui (북저바위) all together. The problem with the description of the three islands, however, is that the report said that they were only about 100 paces apart from each other, which is not the case.

The report said that on the 26th, the inspection party changed directions, which can mean they reversed course, and headed to Gajido (轉向可支島). This suggests that Gajido (可支島) was somewhere back in the direction that had come, which means they headed back southwest. I think they were heading back to either the southern tip of Ulleungdo or to Seal Cave on the west side of the island. They may have missed the opportunity to kill some sea lions on their first trip around the point and went back hoping to surprise any sea lions that had come back up out of the water.

Interestingly, the Korean translation does not say the inspection party changed or reversed course, but just said “they went to Gajido” [가지도(可支島)로 가니...] I wonder why?

At Gajido, the inspection party surprised four or five sea lions that “suddenly dashed out” (驚駭躍出). Here is the relevant passage:

We slept there (Southeast Jeojeondong), and on the 26th, we changed direction (reversed course) and went to Gajido (可支島), where we surprised four or five sea lions that dashed out. They looked like water buffalo. Our riflemen all fired at once and got two of them. The geographical features of the beach landing (丘尾津) was the strangest thing. We went about ten ri into the valley, where we found the remains of what were clearly ancient dwellings. On both sides, the hills and ravines were so high and deep that they were difficult to climb up.

If the sea lions were surprised by the inspection party, they would have dashed “into the water,” not dashed “out of it.” That suggests that the sea lions came out of something, possibly a cave. If it were a cave, it would probably be the same cave that the sea lions dashed out of during the 1886 inspection. Here is the relevant passage from that inspection:

We advanced to Gaji Beach (可支仇味) and found two caves in the side of the mountain. It was too difficult to calculate their depth. We surprised some sea lions that dashed out (of a cave). All our riflemen fired at once and got two of them before they could get into the water.”

Notice that immediately after the 1794 report said they killed two sea lions, it started describing Gumi Landing (丘尾津), which just means something like “beach landing.” In other words, it seemed to be describing the beach at Gajido (可支島), not some new beach since the beach was not named. So far all the beach landings have had, at least, a 1-character name in front of gumi (丘尾), which seems to mean “beach.” For example, Hwangto-gumi (黃土丘尾) and Tong-gumi (桶丘尾) are Hwangto Beach and Tong Beach, respectively. Therefore, by simply saying Gumi Landing (丘尾津), we can assume the report was talking about the beach where they killed the seal lions, which could have been the “Gaji-gumi” (可支仇味) mentioned in the 1786 survey report. By the way, “Gaji-gumi” means “Seal Beach.” Anyway, if it were referring to the beach they were at, then it would mean that they could not have been at “Dokdo” since the report said they walked ten ri into the valley in front of the beach. Ten ri would be about four kilometers, which is longer than the whole island of “Dokdo” (Liancourt Rocks), much less any valley on “Dokdo.” Besides, the report also said that there were remains of ancient dwellings, which would also help to eliminate “Dokdo.”

It seems obvious from the above description that Gajido (可支島) was not a reference to “Dokdo” (Liancourt Rocks). It is simply ridiculous for the Korean government to claim that Gajido (可支島) was an old name for “Dokdo” based only on the mention of “sea lions,” given the fact that sea lions were also found on Ulleungdo.

After Gajido (可支島), the report summaries the rest of their inspection by saying they visited the rocks off the north shore of Ulleungdo and then went back to Tong-gumi (桶丘尾) on the southwest side of the island to wait for calm weather to sail back to the Korean mainland. They finally set sail on April 30th and arrived back at their home base on May 8th, which means it took them more than a week to get back.

The report said that Ulleungdo was seventy to eighty ri from north to south and fifty to sixty ri from east to west, but I am not sure how they got those measurements since the report only mentioned their taking two measurements.

Also, though the 1786 report mentioned sea lions as part of the products found on Ulleungdo, sea lions were not included on the initial list of products in the 1794 report. The report, however, did mention that sea lion skins were part of the products brought back from Ulleungdo.

Even if people do not agree completely with my interpretation of the above report, there is nothing in the report, except the mention of sea lions, that suggests that Gajido (可支島) was a reference to “Dokdo” (Liancourt Rocks). But sea lions were also found on Ulleungdo, so it is ridiculous to make such a claim. Moreover, there was other evidence in the report that tells us that Gajido could not have been “Dokdo,” including mention of a valley near Gajido that was at least four kilometers in length, which is longing than the whole island of Ulleungdo.

Gajido (可支島) was almost certainly a place on or just offshore of Ulleungdo. The Korean government should be ashamed of itself for claiming that it was an old name for “Dokdo.”


Links to More Posts on Takeshima/Dokdo (With Japanese translations)

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 1

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 2

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 3

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 4

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 4 Supplement

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 5

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 6

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 7

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 8

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 9

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 10

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 11

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 1

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 2

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 2 Supplement

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 3

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 4

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 5

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 6

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 7

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 8

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 9

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 10

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 11

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 12

Posted in Verus Historia | 26 Comments »



26 Responses to “Lies, Half-truths, & Dokdo Video, Part 4”
comment number 1 by: pacifist
September 21st, 2006 at 3:36 pm

Thank you for your great job again, Gerry!

As I wrote about Gajido in another posting before, Gajido should be near to Ulleungdo, perhaps one of the small islands around Ulleungdo.

From my past posting: “The authors went to 可支島 on 26th day and on the same day they came back to Ulleungdo as the names of the places in Ulleungdo, such as 竹巖、帷布巖、孔巖、錐山, can be read in the same sentence.
If 可支島 is Takeshima/Dokdo, that lies 92 km apart from Ulleungdo, did they went forth and back for 184 km in one day? This is unbelievable!”

comment number 2 by: Gerry-Bevers
September 22nd, 2006 at 12:43 am

Thank you, Pacifist.

Actually, the report did not give a daily account of what the survey party did on April 27, 28, and 29, but it did just give a summary that included a trip to survey the rocks on or off the northern shore of Ulleungdo. It then said that the party went to Tong-gumi to wait for good sailing weather. It does not say how long they waited for fair weather, but it did said they set sail for home on April 30.

I think the best evidence in the report for refuting Korea’s claim that Gajido was a reference to “Dokdo” was the description of the valley near where they killed the sea lions. The report said they walked four kilometers into the valley, which means that there is no way the valley was on “Dokdo” since Dokdo is much less than four kilometers long.

Korea’s “Gajido-was-Dokdo” claim is typical of the other Korean claims that their old documents talked about “Dokdo” (Liancourt) before 1905. In other words, such claims are based on weak associations and on silly or labored reasoning. All of it is just thrown up to try to hide the facts that Korea documents and maps did not mention “Dokdo” (Liancourt Rocks) and that Korea is illegally occupying Japanese territory.

comment number 3 by: pacifist
September 22nd, 2006 at 2:27 am

Gerry,

Lots of thanks.
Your theory sounds more persuasive than mine.

And the sentence below also does not fit to Takeshima/Dokdo.
入谷數里, 則昔日人家遺址, 宛然尙存
It says that there were ruined houses but nobody should have found traces of houses in Takeshima/Dokdo, because nobody couldn’t live there on the rock formation without soils and water.

comment number 4 by: sqz
September 22nd, 2006 at 2:58 am

Gerry-Bevers wrote:

I think the best evidence in the report for refuting Korea’s claim that Gajido was a reference to “Dokdo” was the description of the valley near where they killed the sea lions.

まさか、ニホンアシカが竹島にだけ生息していた、と韓国人は思っているのかな?
Does a Korean think that a Japanese sea lion inhabited only Takeshima?

Japanese sea lion

分布の概要

日本海側では九州長崎港以北の沿岸域や欝陵島、竹島、隠岐島からサハリン南部まで、大陸沿岸では北朝鮮豆満江河口、太平洋側では九州宮崎市大淀河口以北、北海道から千島、カムチャッカ半島南端まで生息記録がある。

A summary of distribution

There is a habitation record,
in Sea of Japan side, an area along the shore of Kyushu Nagasaki Port northward, Ulleungdo, Takeshima, Oki island, the Sakhalin southern part,
at the continent coast, the North Korea bean Mitsue river mouth,
in the Pacific side, Kyushu Miyazaki-shi size Yodo river mouth northward, Hokkaido, Chishima, the Kamchatka southernmost extreme.

comment number 5 by: ponta
September 22nd, 2006 at 8:49 am

Gerry wrote

so it is ridiculous to make such a claim.

It is ridiculous but they are seriousーーーーーthat is a cause of tragedy.

(Well, I guess I am sometimes like that.)

Great job, Gerry!!

comment number 6 by: Gerry-Bevers
September 23rd, 2006 at 12:26 am

Thank you, Ponta.

By the way, could you give me Toron Taker’s link to this 1909 Japanese map of Ulleungdo, again? I have misplaced it, again.

I think that is a very interesting map and I would like to study the placenames on other parts of the island.

Also, can anyone tell me the name of the island off the northern coast of Ulleungdo on this 1905 Japanese map? I cannot find that Chinese character.

Sqz,

I am sure Korean historians know that there were sea lions on Ulleungdo, but I think they would whether keep other people ignorant of that fact. I think that Korean nationalism is so bad that Korean historians may feel it is patriotic to hide the truth.

comment number 7 by: Two Cents
September 23rd, 2006 at 1:11 am

Gerry,
It’s 俵島 (tawara-jima) meaning a “straw rice bag” island.
However, I do not think it is read in the Japanese way, since all other names apparently have Korean-stye pronunciations printed to their right in katakana.
Pyodo, prehaps?

comment number 8 by: Gerry-Bevers
September 23rd, 2006 at 1:22 am

Thanks, Two Cents.

Yes, 俵島 would be “Pyodo” (표도) in Korean pronunciation, but the character on the map was written differently, so I wondered if it might be another character. Anyway, thanks.

By the way, Ponta, I found the link to the 1909 map that I was looking for, so do not bother yourself with it.

1909 Japanese Map.

comment number 9 by: Two Cents
September 23rd, 2006 at 1:38 am

Gerry,
Is this the link you wanted?

>I think that Korean nationalism is so bad that Korean historians may feel it is patriotic to hide the truth.
Perhaps, it is also to keep their job and prevent being ostracized. Many Japanese historians have opendly talked about Korean scholars being perfectly frank and rational while in Japan, but the moment they go back to Korea, they start making the weirdest claims. In a way, the Korean society is proof that you don’t need the thought police to control speech; pressure from the public can work just as effectively.

comment number 10 by: Occidentalism » Lies, Half-truths, & Dokdo Video, Maps 7
January 20th, 2007 at 1:42 pm

[...] Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 4 [...]

comment number 11 by: Kaneganese
February 5th, 2007 at 8:43 am

Gerry,
I put three “?” which I thought they might be mistakes. So if you have time, please check them.

(Japanese translation for Gerry’s post)
(Gerryの投稿の日本語訳です。)

1794年の鬱陵島検察:可支島とさらなるアシカの死体

以下は、1794年に実施された鬱陵島の検察の報告と私の分析です。この報告は竹島問題にとって大変意義深いなものです。というのも、韓国人が今日の“独島” (Liancourt Rocks)のことを指している、と主張する可支島(ガジド)と言う名の島について言及しているからです。しかし、報告の中では可支島に関する方位、距離、様子など、何も書かれていないため、彼らの主張を指示する理由には殆ど、というより全くなりません。また、他の韓国のどの歴史文献にも、この島に関する記述はないのです。実をいえば、1905年以前の韓国のどの文献や地図にも、韓国人が“独島” (Liancourt Rocks)の存在を知っていたかどうかということ、そのことさえ肯定する確たる証拠は見出せないのです。ではなぜ韓国人は、“可支島”が“独島” (Liancourt Rocks)のことだ、などと主張するのでしょうか?そう、彼等は単に、アシカが“可支島”と“独島” (Liancourt Rocks)のどちらにも生息していた、と言う事実のみを根拠にしているのです。実際、可支島と言う名前は、アシカ島という意味です。ただし、彼等は鬱陵島にもアシカが生息していた、と言う事実を無視しており、論理的に無理があります。

1794年の報告の分析では、“可支島”が“独島” (Liancourt Rocks)のことでは無く、単なる鬱陵島の中か周囲にあった、場所、岩もしくは島嶼のことだったということを説明しようと思います。1886年(1786?)に行われた鬱陵島の検察報告は、ここで見ることが出来ますが〈リンク〉、その中に鬱陵島でアシカ(もしくはアザラシ)狩りをしていた、と言う記述が実際にあるのです。その報告自体が、韓国側の“可支島は独島”セオリーに冷や水を浴びせるものですが、1894年(1794?)の報告は、韓国側にとってさらに好ましくない内容です。

1882年の鬱陵島の地図には、島の西海岸に“可支窟”(アシカ洞)という洞穴が描写されています。1882年の地図はここで見ることが出来ます〈リンク〉。さらも。今日の鬱陵島の地図には、1882年の地図上にあった洞穴とほぼ同じ場所に洞穴があることが記載されています。現代の地図にある洞穴は、가잿굴(Gajaet-gul)と言う名前になっており、ザリガニ(もしくは伊勢海老)洞という意味のようです。その地図はここで見れます。〈リンク〉

私が思うに、“Gajaet-gul”は、もとは“アシカ洞”を意味する“Gaje-gul”だったのではないでしょうか。“Gajaet-gul”の“t”の発音が、“gajae” (ザリガニ)と“gul” (洞穴)の二つの言葉をつなげるために付けたされたのではないかと思うのです。

可支魚(Gaji-eo) は、韓国の古い文献の中で使われていたアシカの漢字表記ですが、現在の純粋な韓国語では、アシカは“강치” (gangchi)と呼ばれています。しかし、鬱陵島の方言では、“강치” (gangchi)は、“가제” (gaje)と発音され、発音としては殆ど違いがありません。ところで私は、韓国人がこれらの場所の名前を付けるときに、何故“gaje”ではなく“gajae”を選んだのか、とても興味があります。

とにかく私は、1794年の韓国の報告の中で言及のあった“可支島”(Gajido)
が、“ザリガニ岩” (gajae岩)であった可能性が高いと思っているのです。その根拠は、鬱陵島のアシカの発音と岩の名前が殆ど同じだと言う事実だけでなく、この1863年の英海軍の地図に島の南側先端部が“Seal Pt.” (アシカ地点)と記載されていることにもあります。

もちろん、“可支島”(ガジド)が“アシカ洞”の前か近くにある鬱陵島西岸沖の岩を指している可能性もあります。とりわけ、“獅子岩” を意味する“사자바위” (Saja Bawui)と言われる岩がその地域にあるからです。その岩は、この現代の鬱陵島の地図で確認出来ます〈リンク〉。韓国人は、“바다사자” (bada saja)と言う言葉を、アシカを意味するのに使うので、“獅子岩” (Saja Bawui)が”アシカ”を意味するのに使われた可能性もあります。“바다사자” (bada saja)は読んで字の如く、”海のライオン(獅子)”を意味するからです。

以下は1794年の漢文で書かれた報告と、その韓国語の翻訳と私が訳した英文です。

“江原道観察使沈晋賢による報告

越松の探討官、韓昌國長官を鬱陵島の検察に派遣する指示を出した。こうした検察は公的に各年に行われ、2地方の将軍がそれぞれ輪番で務めることになっている。

越松の韓昌國長官の報告によると「4月21日に順風を得たので、食料などの資材を4隻の船に分載して午後1時から3時の間に出帆。日本語通訳の李福祥、各階級の民間要員、80名の船員も随行した。

洋上を航行中の5時から7時に、突然北風が吹き始め雲のような霧に囲まれた。雷と強い雨が降りはじめた。4隻全てが散り散りになり、互いを見失ってしまった。長官は気を取り直して海軍の制服を身に付け、食料を海へ撒いて海の神へ祈りをささげた。そして船員に灯火を掲げるよう命令し、他の船に向かって合図を送った。2隻の船は灯火して答えたが、1隻の船は火の応答が無かった。

22日の朝3時から5時の間に、激しい波が次第に弱まり、南方から2隻の帆船がやって来るのが見えた。そして船員が東の方を指差してこう言った。「霧の向こうに見える雲のようなものが、目指す島の最高峰でしょう。」長官がじっと目を凝らして遠くを眺めたところ、島の形が見えてきた。

長官自身が太鼓を叩き、乗組員を促した。すぐに島の西岸にある黃土丘尾津に停泊し、眺望を得るために山に登った。谷から中央の峰までは、折り重なる丘を越えながら、30里ほどあった。谷川が集まって川になり、谷の中には60石ほど耕作可能な水田がある。谷は狭く、瀑布があった。黄土入江洞(黃土丘尾窟)は左に、右に屏風石があった。その上には香木が取れるという香木平(香木亭)がある。香木は2年ごとに伐採されたため、希少なものになった。24日に桶入江津(桶丘尾津)に到着した。谷の形が桶のようで、50歩ほど前の沖には、高さ数十丈の岩があった。周囲は絶壁で、谷の入り口には岩石が層をなしている。何とかして谷を登ってみようとしたが、山は高く、谷は深く、樹木が天高く生え、雑草が生い茂っていたため通路を確保できなかった。

25日になり、長斫之浦に着いた。思った通り竹の茂みがあったが、まばらでしかも、みな丈が短かった。大きめの竹を数本伐採した後、東南の楮田洞へ向かった。洞穴の入口から中峰へは何十里もある。洞窟の裏には開けた場所が3つあり、数十石ほどの水田耕作が可能である。また、前方に島が3つある。最北の島は防牌島、真ん中は竹島(Jukdo)、東は翁島だ。3島間の距離は、それぞれ100歩以内ほどで、島の周囲はそれぞれ数十把ほどだ。険しく聳える岩で、登るには難しそうだ。

そこで宿泊してから、26日に向きを変え可支島(ガジド)へ向かった。 そこで、4,5頭のアシカが驚いて飛出した。まるで水牛のようだった。射撃手が一斉に撃ち、うち2頭をしとめた。丘尾津(入江の船着場)の地理的な形は、最も変わっていた。10里ほど谷に入ると、そこには昔の住居跡がそのまま残っていた。左右に谷山があり、それらは幽玄で深くあるいて登るのは難しい。

次に竹巖、帿布巖、孔巖、錐山といった場所を見てまわった。それから通入江(通邱尾)へ行き、山海の神へ祈りを捧げた。そこで泊まって風が治まるのを待つことにした。

島の周囲は大体、南北が70里から80里、東西が50里から60里で、4方は絶壁の岩で囲まれている。島のあちこちの谷に、住居跡が残っている。田や畑に開墾可能な場所は、あわせて数百石ほどである。香木、栢、蘗、檜、桑、榛と言った樹木がある。靑芹、葵、艾、苧、楮と言った雑草もある。その他、名前が不明で記述できない変わった樹木や草がある。鳥は雁、鷹、鷗、鷺などが、又、毛のある動物では、猫と鼠が生息している。あわびやワカメと言った海産物もある。

30日には、船に乗船して出帆した。次の月の8日に母港へ帰港した。持ち帰った島からの産物は、アシカの皮2頭分、篁竹3本、紫檀香2個、朱黄土5升、地図1枚で、これらは全て封をして上部に渡された。」この報告書を荷物とともに備邊司へ
送ります。”

80人以上が乗り込んだ4隻の船が4月21日午後1時から3時の間に鬱陵島へ向けて出帆します。深い霧と大雨、そして荒れ狂う海に遭遇して一隻の船は行方不明になってしまったようです。残りの船は、時刻は不明だが、22日に黃土丘尾津に到着します。かなり早く、海を横断しています。黃土入江(黃土丘尾)は現在の天府港の近くか、鬱陵島北西角の入江でした。下の1882年の地図に大黃土入江(大黃土邱尾)が鬱陵島北西角に描かれています。

 地図1:鬱陵島外圖(1882)北西部拡大図

谷の入口から島の中峰まで、約30里あったと報告されています。また、検察使一行が、洞穴、滝、岩を見たとも報告しています。岩は屛風石と呼ばれていました。また、その地域の上の方に香木平(香木亭)があったことにも触れています。滝、洞穴、そして物見やぐら(亭)については、1786年の報告の中にも言及されています。

24日に、一行は南へ向かって航行し、桶入江津(桶丘尾津)に到着します。1882年の地図上で、鬱陵島の南西角に桶入江(桶邸尾)が確認出来ます。

 地図2:鬱陵島外圖(1882)南西部拡大図

報告では、桶入江の谷の形は桶のようで、入り口には岩石が層をなしている、と描写しています。これらの積み重なった石は、墓であった可能性があります。また、50歩ほど前の沖には、高さ数十丈の岩があったと書かれています。桶入江は、今日の韓国の地図に今でも載っているので、1794年の報告の中のこの岩は、“亀岩”を意味する今日のGeobuk Bawui(거북바위)でしょう。亀岩はここで見れます。〈リンク〉

25日に、検察使一行は向きを変えて最南端の長斫之浦に向かいます。それも1882年の地図で確認出来ます。長斫之浦は、恐らく現在の沙洞港の近くにあったと思われます。

報告では、彼等は長斫之浦から“南東の楮田洞”に向かいます。つまり、楮田洞は、一つではなかったことが分かります。事実、次の1750年代の地図では、“苧”の字が違いますが、苧田洞が北東角にもあります。

 地図3:海東地圖(1750年代)

苧田洞の苧田は、“ちょ(麻の一種)?ガ沢山生えている所”という意味で、つまり、このような何かが沢山生えている場所が、他のにもあったという可能性があります。事実、今日の鬱陵島の地図には、南東角に苧洞港という港があり、それが恐らく“南東の楮田洞”があった場所のようです。結局、“田”の文字が取れただけのことだったのでしょう。

南東の楮田洞から中峰までは何十里もあった、と報告されています。報告では又、そこから3つの島が見える、とあります。最北は防牌島で、これが現在の観音島だったと思います。中央の島は竹島(Jukdo)で、ほぼ間違い無く現在の竹島(Jukdo)でしょう。南東の楮田洞のすぐ東沖にあったのは瓮島で、意味は甕島です。純粋な韓国語では、瓮島はDokseomと発音し、中国系韓国語発音では “Dokdo”となります。

もし南東の楮田洞が現在の苧田洞であったなら、 瓮島Ongdo (Dokdo) は現在の苧田洞のすぐ前にある現在のチョッテ岩か、もう少し沖にあるBukjeo岩のことになります。ここに、観音島、竹島(Jukdo)、それにBukjeo岩のすべてが写っている写真があります〈リンク〉。しかし、報告の中ではそれぞれの島はたった100歩しか離れていない、と書かれているため、当てはまりません。

報告では、26日に一行は向きを変えて可支島(ガジド)を目指します。これはつまり、彼等がやってきた方向である南西へ向かって戻った所にこの島があることになります。 私は、彼等は最南端の岬か西岸のアシカ洞へ踵を返して向かったのだと思います。初めにその地点通った時にアシカを取り損ねたので、海から戻ったアシカが飛び出すかと期待していたのかもしれません。

面白いことに、韓国語の翻訳では踵を返したということを訳さずに、単に“可支島へ向かった”としか書かれてありません。不思議です。

可支島では、一行は4,5頭のアシカを驚かして、飛び出させます。これが関連する文です。
“そこで宿泊してから、26日に向きを変え可支島(ガジド)へ向かった。 そこで、4,5頭のアシカが驚いて飛出した。まるで水牛のようだった。射撃手が一斉に撃ち、うち2頭をしとめた。入江津(丘尾津)の地理的な形は、最も変わっていた。10里ほど谷に入ると、そこには昔の住居跡がそのまま残っていた。左右に谷山があり、それらは幽玄で深くあるいて登るのは難しい。”

もし、アシカが検察使一行に驚いたのならば、“海に飛び込む”はずで、“飛び出る”はずはありません。つまりそれは、アシカが何かから飛出てきたことを意味しますが、恐らくそれは洞穴だったと思います。もしそうなら、1886(1786?)年の検察中にアシカが飛び出してきたのと同じ洞穴だったかもしれません。これがその検察の報告の関連部分です。
“我々は可支仇味(アシカ入江)へと向かい、そこに2つの洞穴が山の側にあるのを確認した。深さを測るのは大変難しかった。我々に驚いたアシカが数頭(洞穴から)飛出てきた。射撃手が皆同時に撃ち、海へ逃げ込む前に2頭をしとめた。

1794年の報告で2頭のアシカを射殺したと記述したすぐ後に、入江の船着場、というような意味の丘尾津(入江津)を記述し始めたことに注目して下さい。言い換えれば、この入江に名前がついていないところを見ると、新しいものではなく、可支島の入江を指しているものと思われます。今までの所、全ての船着場に最低一文字以上の漢字が丘尾(入江の意味か?)の前に付いています。例えば、黃土丘尾、桶丘尾などです。こうしたことから、単に丘尾津と記述していることから、アシカを射殺した入江のことを単に言っていると思われます。そしてその場所は1786年の報告にもあった可支仇味(仇味はグミと発音)であった可能性があります。ところで、“可支仇味”は、“アシカ入江”の意味です。とにかく、もし彼等がいた入江のことを指していたとすれば、“独島”にいたはずがありません。入江の前の谷を10里行った、と報告にあるからです。10里は約4km程になり、それは“独島 (Liancourt Rocks)”の全長より長く、どの谷もそれより短いからです。それに、報告では昔の住居跡があったとあり、それは“独島”でない更なる証拠となります。

上記の記述から、可支島(ガジド)が“独島 (Liancourt Rocks)”のことを指しているのではないことは明らかです。韓国政府が、アシカの記述があるからと言って、可支島は“独島 (Liancourt Rocks)”の古称であると主張するのは、鬱陵島でもアシカが生息していたと言う事実を考えると、大変馬鹿げています。

可支島の後、北部の浜の沖の岩を訪ねてから、南西部の桶丘尾へ戻って朝鮮半島本土へ戻るため天候が落ち着くのを待った、と記述して報告書は残りの検察を締めくくっています。最終的に、4月30日に出帆して5月8日に母港へ戻ってきました。つまり、1週間以上も掛けて戻ったわけです。

報告書ではまた、鬱陵島は南北に70から80里、東西に50から60里と書かれていますが、2つの測定値しか書かれていないため、私はどうやって彼等がこの値を測ったのか、よく分かりません。

さらに、1786年の報告ではアシカは鬱陵島の産物の一つとして記述されていますが、1794年の報告の産物のリストには、元々アシカは載っていませんでした。しかし、報告の中で実際に鬱陵島から持ち帰った産物の中の一つにアシカの皮があることが記述されています。

皆さんが上記の私の解釈に完全に同意しないとしても、アシカの名前がある以外に、可支島が“独島 (Liancourt Rocks)”のことを指している、と言うことを思わせるものはありません。しかし、アシカは鬱陵島でも観測されていたのですから。そうした主張は馬鹿げています。可支島が“独島 (Liancourt Rocks)”ではない、さらなる証拠は、“独島 (Liancourt Rocks)”は全長4kmもないのに、報告書に可支島の近くの谷が少なくとも4kmあると書かれていることです。

可支島は、ほぼ確実に鬱陵島のある場所か、すぐ沖の何処かであるようです。韓国政府が可支島が“独島 (Liancourt Rocks)”の古称であるなどと主張することは、恥ずべきことなのです。

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